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Biology Term Paper

E.Coli a Lethal Emerging Pathogen
      Some people who suffer from bloody diarrhea caused by E. coli O157 can also suffer from a syndrome known as a hemolytic-uremic syndrome. This syndrome occurs because of the entrance of the exotoxin known as verotoxin into the bloodstream. In this syndrome, the patient suffers from hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and renal failure.
Pages: 15 (3750 words), Term Paper
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Factors giving rise to Emerging Pathogens
      In the laboratory, E. coli can be easily cultured on the nutrient agar as well as the Mac Conkey agar and the Eosin Methylene Blue agar. They provide with grey, bright pink and metallic sheen colonies on the agar respectively. The most feasible temperature for E. coli is 37 degrees. Some of the E.coli strain forms lactose and if this lactose-containing bacteria ferments.
Pages: 14 (3500 words), Term Paper
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Possible Mechanism of a Specialist Becoming a Generalist: Ecological Fitting
This paper aims to prove that specialization does not definitely lead to an evolutionary dead end using evidence from relevant researches on floral plants, parasites, and mammals. As further evidence of this concept, a plausible mechanism through which the transition of specialist to generalist has been reported to occur will also be discussed 
Pages: 7 (1750 words), Term Paper
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Does Our Inability to Categorically Chart Our Evolutionary Process Give Us the Right to Believe that We Are not Subject to the Laws of Evolution
A hominid comes under the family of Hominidae that includes every creature, extinct and closely akin to Homo sapiens than to the chimpanzees. It was the great anthropologist Leakey who coined the term. The term is Leakey’s own way of recognizing the intimate evolutionary relationship that existed among human beings, chimpanzees and gorillas 
Pages: 4 (1000 words), Term Paper
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Protoplasm and Cell Membrane
The researcher states that the basic cellular structural components are similar in all cell types. Cells are bounded by a plasma membrane (cell membrane) and contain the fluid called protoplasm. The protoplasm is divided into the clear cytoplasm and the central nucleus. The protoplasm is made up of five basic substances, water, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and electrolytes.
Pages: 20 (5000 words), Term Paper
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Useful and Harmful Microorganisms
Members of the genus Staphylococcus have been associated with the production of the enzyme called coagulases. These enzymes protect the microorganism from phagocytosis. Other examples of enzymes that protect the pathogenic microorganisms are the kinases, hyaluronidase, collagenase, and IgA proteases. 
Pages: 14 (3500 words), Term Paper
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The Pathophysiology of Hepatitis B
These immune responses against infected hepatocytes result in liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinomas. Damage to hepatocytes also manifests as spotty acidophilic necrosis and lymphohistiocytic lobular inflammation in the liver (UPMC).Hepatitis B disease pathology is mainly a result of impaired liver function due to hepatocellular damage. The anatomical and physiological changes that result from HBV infection are arthralgia, cholecystitis, cholangitis, bradycardia, irritability, lethargy,
Pages: 4 (1000 words), Term Paper
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Description of Oceanography Science
Fond of experiments, this trip became a memorable voyage because it gave him an interesting perspective on the nature of the impressive geographical features and remarkable current patterns of the Bosporus Strait, the two-layer flow. This sparked his imagination and moved him to perform deep observation and experimentation
Pages: 5 (1250 words), Term Paper
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Genes, Proteins, Enzymes, and Compounds in the Deep Ocean Ecosystem
The organisms cannot survive on the earth’s surface. Many of the terrestrial organisms have a strong influence on the biological and geochemical phenomenon, and with a rich and diverse microbial community at the deep level, there would be huge potentials of these microorganisms which are not known to man today
Pages: 5 (1250 words), Term Paper
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Oncogenes and cancer
Cancer cells manifest, to varying degrees, four characteristics that distinguish them from normal cells, comprising- uncontrolled proliferation, de-differentiation and loss of function, invasiveness and metastasis (Rang et al.A normal cell turns into a cancer cell because of one or more mutations in its DNA, which can be inherited or acquired. In case of the breast cancer, woman who inherits a single defective copy of either of these tumor suppressor genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 displays an augmented
Pages: 6 (1500 words), Term Paper
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Barnacles: Parasitic vs. Commensals
With the aforementioned animals, the true barnacles acted as commensals. However, a few true barnacles have actually become “nutritionally dependent” on larger animals like shark, corals or worms, especially during the earlier stages of barnacle evolution, and although their symbiosis was only for “support or protection,” these relationships were still considered parasitic (Newman & Abbott).There are three suborders of Thoracica barnacles: the stalked barnacles or Lepadomorpha, the
Pages: 7 (1750 words), Term Paper
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How Not Meeting The Assumptions Of The Hardy-Weinberg Principle Aid In Evolution
Of loci with more than two alleles, it is possible to apply the Hardy-Weinberg theorem, in which case the expected genotype frequencies are given by the multinomial expansion for all k alleles segregating in the population: (p1 + p2 + p3 + . 2- “Generation I of this population consists of migrants from several other populations, thus violating the Hardy-Weinberg assumption of no migration. Notably, the generation I has more homozygous individuals and fewer heterozygous individuals than would
Pages: 7 (1750 words), Term Paper
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Infanticide in Primates Sexual Selection Hypothesis versus Social Pathology Hypothesis
Reportedly, in this case, infanticide does not have any adaptive value and hence does not confer any reproductive advantage to the male aggressor. Under this theory, it is likely that the killed offspring happens to be a victim of circumstances and that the males do not select the offspring they kill.
Pages: 7 (1750 words), Term Paper
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Features Of The Gram Staining Procedure
The pore size decreases, permeability is reduced and the CV-I complex cannot be extracted. Therefore, these cells remain purple-violet. Alcohol causes the diminution in the diameter of the pores in the cell-wall peptidoglycan (Web. occur most commonly as irregular clusters of spherical cells and Streptococcus spp. are cocci that divide in a single plane.
Pages: 6 (1500 words), Term Paper
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The History of Life on Earth from Single-Celled Prokaryotes
Despite the vast number of organisms that we see around us, a greater number exists without us even seeing them. If not for the discovery of a microscope, we would not have been aware of these microorganisms. In fact, phylogenetically, the microbial world is by far the most numerous and diverse, with respect to biomass and the number of species.
Pages: 26 (6500 words), Term Paper
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Forensic Botany
This paper tells that forensic botany can be described as the application of Plant Sciences to related criminal investigations in the courts of law, through incorporating palynology which if the study of pollens; dendrochronology which is the study of tree rings, limnology which is the scientific study of aquatic environments, systematic which is the scientific classification of plants.
Pages: 12 (3000 words), Term Paper
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World of coffee
Most of the coffee emanates from subtropical regions and areas that lie along the equator. Equatorial regions and subtropical countries that fall on either side of the equator are humid and warm, thereby suitable for coffee farming. Arabica coffee, for instance, performs best in these subtropical environments. Coffee farmers exist in more than fifty nations within coffee bands, all over the globe, subsuming myriad developing nations. Coffee plantations exist in areas as far as South America,
Pages: 5 (1250 words), Term Paper
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Steroids: How They Work & Affect The Human Body
There are many types of steroids taken in form of pills and injections. These steroids are mainly known as anabolic, androgenic and corticoid (Gerber. Estrogens and progesterone are the type of testosterone and they are used by women when they face hormonal changes in their bodies.There are some steroids which are prescribed by the doctors for the treatment of certain illness and diseases. The sportsmen usually seek doctors prescribed steroids so they may not have negative effect on body.
Pages: 4 (1000 words), Term Paper
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Iron in Human Nutrition
A defect in hemoglobin synthesis results in the red blood cells that are normally small and contain a small amount of hemoglobin.  When these conditions persist, the capacity of the blood to supply the oxygen and deliver it to the body is reduced. The cells, therefore, do not get enough blood hence their performance is reduced.
Pages: 4 (1000 words), Term Paper
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Does elevated atmospheric CO2 increase productivity of the boreal forest
Tundra shrub growths increased in the recent field measurements over the period and are in agreement with output models. Cold environment margins at the far north of the tree populations have resulted to positive sustained growth responses on temperature and have grown rapidly at the greatest rate ever recorded. In contrast, field observations that are spatially restricted have anomalously low documentation on productive stands growth trend in Alaska. Moreover, an elevation tree line
Pages: 14 (3500 words), Term Paper
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