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Biology Literature review

The Ontogeny and Effect of Genetic and Environmental Factors on the Social Behavior of the Domestic Dogs
The behavior of the dogs may be influenced considerably by the environmental or external factors. It was supported by the view that the dogs of all breeds have the same karyotype which represents the num­ber and shape of chromosomes. Hence, the differences among breeds are not only due to genetic differences but also due to phenotypic differences.  
Pages: 12 (3000 words), Literature review
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Flavonoids - Critical regulators of seed development
The flavonoids regulate the transport of auxin in the seed. What is more important is the manner in which the compounds conduct their transportation in between the synthesis site to the necessary cell location and tissues (Thompson et al, 2009, pp.Studies of Fulton et al represent the fact that the behavior of a cell needs controlling measures that are efficiently conducted by intercellular signaling. The integument cell development has been observed in the Arabidopsis that presents the example
Pages: 5 (1250 words), Literature review
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Beta Blocker Treatment in Heart Failure
Close examination of the patients approximately averaged seven months coupled with reduced hospitalization (Churchouse, 2009).Bisoprololin study entailed either mild or a moderate patient whose mortality rate equaled that of Metoprolol except the monitoring duration that is longer than the latter (Beebe & Myers, 2010) is. In addition, the study has a reduced hospitality rate by 20% having examined 2,650 patients within a year.All the three studies, their patients fall between II and III
Pages: 5 (1250 words), Literature review
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The effect of sildenafil on embryo development in vivo in mice
Furthermore, the women’s endometrium lining should not only have more than 2 cm2 in volume but also have an endometriual vascularity of not more than 3.3 pulsatility index (Killick, 2007; Friedler et al.One of the pharmacological drugs that are being considered in treating problems related to the endometrium lining is the sildenafil citrate (Hattori and Tabata, 2006). Through the use of this particular drug, the presence of nitric oxide can will not only create a positive affect on the
Pages: 4 (1000 words), Literature review
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The effect of Sildenafil n embryo development in vitro in mice
Can be analyzed by identifying the existence of pinopodes, prostaglandins, cellular adhesion molecules, the patterns of specific gene expression, or cytokines (Aghajanova et al., 2008; Achache & Revel, 2006).Biopsies are invasive by nature. Despite using such invasive procedure, van der Gaast et al. (2003) revaeled that the process of conducting endometrium biopsy will not cause adverse effects on the outcome of ART procedure. Aside from being non-invasive and easy to use, Strowitzki et al.
Pages: 4 (1000 words), Literature review
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The effect of NO/cGMP system on sheep somatic cell differentiation in vitro
Furthremore, Shweiki and colleagues (1995) explained that a high level of VEGF mRNA is enough to normalize the oxygen levels in hypoxic cells. Recently, Ferrara et al. (2003) found out that the VEGF-A is responsible in regulating the formation of the ovarian blood vessels. In the absence of one of the VEGF allelles, embryonic development can be negatively affected (Ferrara et al. Given that some follicles are heavily dependent on the presence of gonadotrophin, several studies conclude that one
Pages: 4 (1000 words), Literature review
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The effect of Sildenafil (viagra) on antral follicle development in sheep
There is the selection of the dominant follicle and suppression of remaining follicles and undergoes atresia. In sheep, there is the development of LH receptors on follicles where the diameter reaches four, 5 to 6, 8 and 25mm. At dominance process, there is rapid development and the maturation occurs. The size gap between the dominant follicle and the subordinate one in sheep may reach 2 to 3 mm (Temel Et al 2000).Sildenafil, or rather Viagra, contains nitric oxide, in which case it plays a
Pages: 4 (1000 words), Literature review
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The influence of culture conditions on the mechanical properties of agarose hydrogels for cartilage tissue engineering
In the properties of cartilage these are referenced and in mechanical tests, it suffers from the challenges of practical limits in the replica of the situ conditions, especially in the equilibrium. The use of compression specimens is paramount and is plugged from the exercised joints which must be preloaded in achievement of the uniaxial conditions of strain and the poisson effect of the thin and tensile specimens.In this experiment, the specimen cartilage is first put in a state of equilibrium
Pages: 16 (4000 words), Literature review
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Oculocutaneous Albinism
Nystagmus and decreased vision occur due to foveal hypoplasia and strabismus occurs due to erratic decussation of fibers of optic nerve. Due to abnormalities in the optic pathway, poor stereopsis and monocular vision can occur (Park et al, 2012). In patients with Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome, easy bruising is seen and in those with Chediak-Higashi syndrome, recurrent infections are noted. In X-linked ocular albinism, decreased hearing is seen (Okulicz, 2002). As far as discoloration of eyes, skin
Pages: 4 (1000 words), Literature review
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Cancer testis antigens (CTAs)
The division of cells resulting to nuclei whereby the total chromosome number is reduced by a half its original number is termed as meiosis. The nuclei that arise from the parent nuclei are normally same as the parent nuclei but they genetic makeup is normally different. This is because genetic diversity is permitted during reproduction. Meiosis is composed of two phases, Meiosis I and II. It is through these stages that meiosis gives rise to 4 nuclei. Each of these nuclei has one set of
Pages: 8 (2000 words), Literature review
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LIlumina Sequencing of 16S rRNA Tag Revealed Spatial Variations of Bacterial Communities in a Mangrove Wetland
Overlapped sequences with ambiguous bases, sequences with errors in either reverse or forward primer, sequences that had variable tags longer than 90 bp and shorter than 50 bp an d sequences with two or more mismatches within the region of 46 and 48 bp during the overlap step were discarded. After barcoded Illumina paired-end sequencing, 779, 569 full V6 tags length remained. Chimera sequences were then removed using UCHIME. A total of 777,123 clean tags were obtained. Each sample had an
Pages: 5 (1250 words), Literature review
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Studies looking at the effect of sildenafil citrate ( Viagra ) in ivf ( female fertility)
In the cohort study that was conducted by Gleicher et al. (2013), the authors found out that between the embryo transfers and G-CSF perfusions, the endometrial thickness of 21 infertile women with endometria less than 7 mm during the time of hCG administration increased from 6.4 +/- 1.4 to 9.3 +/- 2.1 mm during the conception and non-conception cycles. To examine the effects of 25 mg vaginal sildenafil on the development of endometriaum and uterine artery blood flow on women who undergoes IVF
Pages: 4 (1000 words), Literature review
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Introduction to campylobacter
After the sampled pellet is re-suspended, incubation of the sample at a microbic atmosphere that has 10 percent carbon dioxide, 5 percent oxygen and 85 percent nitrogen. All this happens at a temperature of 3 degrees for 24 hours. The enrichment broth is made consistent with the nutrient broth with supplementation including trimethoprim 10 mg/l, cefoperazone 15 mg/l, rifampicin 5 mg/l, polymyxin B 2500 iu/l and amphotericin 2mg/l. This enriched culture is then placed in selective media with a
Pages: 6 (1500 words), Literature review
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Trove 2 as a biomarker in kidney cancer
Was capable of promoting correct folding of misfolded RNA while the Ro60-YRNA complex act as transporters where they transport RNA-binding proteins to their target molecules (Belisova et al, 2005, p.It was during investigation into the autoimmunity of systemic lupus erythromatosus or SLE that YRNA’s were discovered sometime in the 1980’s as an important component of the Ro ribonucleoprotein particles or Ro RNPs (Gardiner et al, 2009, p.YNA gene is present in all vertebrates and in some
Pages: 6 (1500 words), Literature review
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Therapeutic management of stroke to prevent secondary events in patients who have experienced an ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA)
Arteries, they lead to the narrowing of small penetrating arteries of the brain and thus the cause or onset of secondary events in patients with TIA (Fayad, 2006). In relation to the current research problem, Bornstein, Silvestrelli, Caso and Parnetti (2012) found that where there pathophysiology and clinical manifestation shows clear possibility of ITA, it is very important that immediate management steps are taken to avert further secondary events, leading to stroke. This is because there is
Pages: 5 (1250 words), Literature review
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The co-chaperones of heat shock proteins and disease
The functions of the HSPs in usually essential for the homeostasis of all the living cells, and often become vital in diseases when our bodily cells have to keep up with a stressful environment. The advancement of our knowledge of the functions and the biochemistry of HSPs enable us to acquire more tools to give a mark to the patients. The advancements also make us to have close observations and improvements in the status of this defense system during the times of infections, diseases and body
Pages: 8 (2000 words), Literature review
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Material in squid beak and abrasion resistance
It is composed of two parts that are sharp. Surprisingly, it is implanted into the head, which is composed of soft tissue. Normally, it is usually darker than the other body parts. However, the darkness reduces as the beak moves towards the base, which is the soft tissues of the head. Why is the beak hard? It has been discovered that, the darkness of the squid’s beak results from a direct relationship with the amount of proteins forming it. Researchers say that a chitin meshwork in water
Pages: 12 (3000 words), Literature review
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Bioinspired liquid repellent surfaces
Has been resolution to several engineering challenges in nature that include antifouling and fluid drag reduction which are obstacles to several industries. Nature has a clue to these challenges and it includes the butterfly wings and rice leaves unique surfaces characteristics. These combine the lotus leaf effect as well as the shark skin effect to generate what is referred to as rice butterfly wing effect.Several fauna and flora has been majorly focused on by researchers with a lot of
Pages: 20 (5000 words), Literature review
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Commonly used intravenous anesthetics decrease bladder contractility: An in vitro study of the effects of propofol, ketamine, and midazolam on the rat bladder
Anaesthesia is come by the diffusion of drug from the arterial blood into the brain across the blood–brain barrier. The anaesthetic effect, as well as the rate of transfer into the brain, is regulated by; blood flow to the brain, protein binding; extracellular pH and drug pK, the relative solubilities of the drug in water and lipid, and speed of injection (Evers, Maze & Kharasch, 2011).After administration of IV anaesthetic agent, the concentration of the agent in the blood reduces as the
Pages: 6 (1500 words), Literature review
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Contribution of Histone Variants To Nucleosome Structure
The sequences involved differ between the major histone subtypes and the variants in the N and C terminal of protein domains (Conerly, 2010). The abundance of the variants is in the cell types and during cell cycles, development and differentiation. Main histones and variants have distinctions biophysical properties. Histone H2A has variants including H2A.Z, MacroH2A, H2A-Bbd, H2AvD, and H2A. The conservation of some variants is during evolution while others are restricted to vertebrates and
Pages: 7 (1750 words), Literature review
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