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Chemistry Lab Report

Experiment 4:Synthesis of Dibenzalacetone (Aldol Reaction)
Filtration of the product was done using a Hirsch funnel, and the Craig tube method was used for purification and recrystallization of the product as per the SC214 practical manual, page 42. Melting point and IR spectrum were also obtained for the characterization of the product.Peaks were observed to identify those belonging to alkene groups, aromatic benzene rings and carbonyl group. All the peaks are to the left of 3000 cm-1, with the highest peak at 691 cm-1, indicating the presence of
Pages: 4 (1000 words), Lab Report
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What is the heat of solution for various salts?
Whether, in Kelvin or not, the resultant heat change retains the same number of units. Temperature may be in Kelvin or degrees Celsius; but a change of two units while in Kelvin is the same in 0C.The salts used in this experiment are all categorized as ionic salts. The bonds in the structure are due to electrostatic attraction between different chemical charges, also referred to as ionic bond. An ion is a chemical species with a characteristic charge. For each of the salts in this experiment,
Pages: 5 (1250 words), Lab Report
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EXP #4 Synthesis Zinc Iodide
This led to the formation of the precipitate. The mass of the solid and the boiling tube was measured as well.The observations with regard to the color changes are as follows. In the beginning the color is dark brown. The color transitions to a reddish hue, and converts to a light brown. The color then transitions to a light yellow. The color gradually transitions to paler and paler yellow, until in the end the color transitions to no color.The zinc iodide yield is simply the mass of the zinc
Pages: 4 (1000 words), Lab Report
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The Synthesis of Sulfanilamide
The flask is then rinsed using 5ml cold water and then transferred to the beaker containing the ice resulting in the formation of a precipitate. The precipitate is then stirred to facilitate the breakage of bigger lumps. The beaker and the flask are rinsed using ice water. In the hood, a water bath is prepared in the 250 ml beaker at a temperature of 70oC after which the crude is then placed into the Erlenmeyer flask. 11 ml of dilute ammonium chloride is then added and stirred up to break up
Pages: 4 (1000 words), Lab Report
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Multiple Synthesis
The flask was placed in a water bath with a temperature of 60⁰C to evaporate off some ethanol and then cooled in an ice bath. The color of the solution was noted down.00 grams of the benzoin provided were added to a 125 mL Erlenmeyer flask. The mixture was heated in a water bath in a fume hood until the mixture stopped producing brown-colored gas. The flask was then removed from the water bath and then 75.0 mL of distilled water added to the mixture. The mixture was allowed to cool to room
Pages: 6 (1500 words), Lab Report
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Enzyme Amylase Lab Report
After each test, the observations made were recorded. A graph of the enzyme activity against the amount of amylase at 10 minutes was then plotted.1 mL of 1% starch solution was placed in two test tubes. One of these tubes was placed in a water bath with boiling water and the other in an ice bath. 1 mL of the 1% starch solution used in method a) above was placed in a test tube. This test tube was then placed in a water bath with a temperature of 37⁰C. The three tubes were left in the baths for
Pages: 5 (1250 words), Lab Report
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Experiment to determine the presence of a single nucleotide polymorphism in a gene
The agarose gel was placed into the apparatus of electrophoresis, having the wells on the black end of the cathode. TBE running buffer was added to cover the gel to a level of 1-2 mm over the surface. About 4µl quantity of samples having 100ng DNA was loaded from sample one to three inside the wells using P20 Gilson. The lid was put on, the power turned on and adjusted to about 100 v. The power was run for approximately 30 minutes up to when the blue tracker dye was about ¾ of the gel. The
Pages: 4 (1000 words), Lab Report
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Thermochemistry Hess' law
The temperature and volumes for each was measured. The sodium hydroxide solution was then added into the Styrofoam cup containing the solution of hydrochloric acid. The mixture was stirred with the thermometer until the highest temperature was reached.According to the result obtained from the experiment, Hess’ law “The enthalpy change for any reaction depends on the products and reactants and is independent of the pathway or the number of steps between the reactant and product” is real”
Pages: 5 (1250 words), Lab Report
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Preparation of , unsaturated carboxylic acid
The NMR spectrum revealed peaks at chemical shifts of 5.9δ and 6.2δ, these correspond to vinylic (-C=C-H) protons in the product. The vinylic protons normally produce peaks at chemical shifts between 4. The chemical shift at 1.6δ is due to allylic (C=C-C-H) protons. These protons produce peaks at chemical shifts between 1.2δ (McMurry 2011). The vinylic and allylic protons are found on the CH=CHCO2H branch of the product.This reaction involved the conversion of 3,4-methylenedioxybenzaldehyde
Pages: 4 (1000 words), Lab Report
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COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SALICYLATE IN URINE.
The solution was then made up to the mark of the volumetric flask using distilled water. All the solutions were then stoppered, mixed thoroughly and then left to stand for five minutes.Using beer lamberts law, concentration of salicylate can be easily determined (Shaw, 2011). The determination of the concentration of salicylate can be determined in ways. Ways using the beer lamberts law. If the molar absorptivity of a solution at a given wavelength is known, the concentration is calculated
Pages: 6 (1500 words), Lab Report
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Experiment 9 formal report
This explains the concept of ideal gas law, a law that combines relationship of all the four essential variables of pressure, temperature, volume and the number of moles. Ideal gas law is written as PV = nRT where n = number of moles, P = pressure, T = temperature, V = volume and R = gas constant with a uniform value of 0.As acknowledged earlier, relationship between two variables can be determined since behavior of each variable in independent of the other variables. In the experiment, the
Pages: 5 (1250 words), Lab Report
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Measuring The Heat of Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide
The concentration of the H­2O2 was also recorded. 60 mL of 0.5M KI solution was obtained. 40 mL of the H­2O2 solution was measured into a graduated cylinder and the temperature probe plugged in. 10 mL of KI was measured into another graduated cylinder and then poured into the calorimeter and then quickly covered with an aluminium foil lid. The temperature probe was immediately inserted into the probe through a hole in the foil lid. The temperature recording was done immediately the KI
Pages: 5 (1250 words), Lab Report
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Molecular Fluorescence Analysis of Proteins
The tyrosine band was then obtained by subtracting the buffer spectrum from the tyrosine spectrum. All these steps were repeated for serum albumin making sure to save all the spectra.0 mL of 10 ppm riboflavin solution was measured into a 100 mL volumetric flask and diluted using the buffer to make a 100 ppb stock solution. Standard solutions were then prepared using clean volumetric pipettes rinsed with HPLC water. The final concentrations of the standard solutions were computed and recorded in
Pages: 4 (1000 words), Lab Report
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Molecular Fluorescence Analysis of Proteins
The excitation spectrum plots the fluorescence intensity at a constant emission wavelength as a function of the excitation wavelength, whereas the emission spectrum plots the fluorescence intensity against the emission wavelength during irradiation at a particular excitation wavelength.The power of fluorescence radiation is proportional to the radiant power of the excitation beam absorbed by the system (Skoog et al. Beer’s law can be used to relate fluorescence and concentration of
Pages: 4 (1000 words), Lab Report
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Organic Chemistry Lab: Isolation of Caffeine from a Tea Bag
Conventional breeding, physicochemical methods, microbial degradation and genetic engineering are some of the methods employed in decaffeination (Fan et al. Three methods of extraction of caffeine are frequently used. The first is the direct contact decaffeination that uses organic solvent methylene chloride. The process removes the required caffeine and retains compounds necessary for the flavor. However, methylene chloride is toxic, and this is a major drawback. The second method is the water
Pages: 7 (1750 words), Lab Report
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Magnesium Oxide by Gravimetric Analysis
The Bunsen burner was removed from the flame and allowed to cool for three minutes. The lid of the crucible was lifted using a pair of crucible tongs to allow the entry of air into the crucible. The crucible was heated again for another 5 minutes after which it was allowed to cool. A third cycle of heating and cooling was performed followed by a fourth round, which was carried out with the lid of the crucible partially open to allow the entry of air. Care was taken to replace the lid whenever a
Pages: 5 (1250 words), Lab Report
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The use of pipettes;precision and accuracy.
Automatic pipettes are used together with disposable tips. The automatic pipettes are widely used in the biochemical, biological, microbiological teaching, and laboratories involved in research for the transfer of small liquid volumes. The glass pipettes that are mostly used in the chemical laboratories do not give accurate results when measuring liquid volumes of less than 1ml. In such cases, the automatic pipettes are used to give accurate and precise results. The common brand used in most
Pages: 13 (3250 words), Lab Report
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Physical Chemistry Lab Report
To counteract this precipitation performed slowly in an acidic environment. The acid solution mixture is not affected by anions of weak acids that might also form precipitates with the silver ions. Precaution must be taken to avoid a large excess of silver ions since it can lead to unwanted precipitates. Interfering ions might precipitate with excess Ag+ in the solution mixture leading to increased mass of precipitate. Inadequate drying and washing of the precipitate might encourage these
Pages: 7 (1750 words), Lab Report
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Physical Chemistry Lab Report
This lab report covers on the employment of gravimetric analysis in the mass determination of chlorine within an unknown chloride solution. In determining the mass percent of chlorine, a pure precipitate containing chloride ions must be prepared. Among the elements that form insoluble chlorides include Pb2+, Hg22+ and Ag+ (Smith and Stanton, 114). This experiment used silver because it is not only easily filtered and readily available, but also undergoes 99.99% conversion from Ag to silver
Pages: 5 (1250 words), Lab Report
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Unknown compound
Be tested for characteristic reactions by reacting them with dilute nitric acid, dilute hydrochloric acid, aqueous barium nitrate/chloride, silver nitrate, ammonium hydroxide or sodium hydroxide. These reagents are used in determining presence of anions (negatively charged particles) in unknown samples, which must be in aqueous states before the tests can be conducted. A number of signs can be used to deduce whether a chemical reaction has taken place some of which include: Color changes,
Pages: 10 (2500 words), Lab Report
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