Hagar was abused by Sarah, Abraham’s wife, after she bore him Ishmael. In United States of America, African women were abused, and their rights infringed upon. They were viewed as sex symbols, and objects of slavery. These types of art are neo-classical in nature (Goggin and Tobin, 2009).This is because they are symmetrical in nature, bringing out the notion of reason and restraint. They also portray a form of nobility, and stillness. This is depicted by the sculptures appeal to religion/deity. Another famous American artist is Harriet Hosmer. Harriet was born in 1830, and died in 1908. Harriet trained in physical curriculum, and specialized in riding, and skating. She also practiced rowing, and was interested in travelling. In 1852, Harriet went to Rome, and between the periods 1853 to 1860, Harriet studied the art of sculptures, under the tutelage of Charlotte Cushman (Culkin, 2010).Besides sculpturing, Harriet Hosmer developed machines that had the capability of converting the Italian limestone into marble. Amongst her works includes the sleeping Faun, Zenobia in Chains, and Beatrice Cenci. Despite her prowess in sculpturing, Harriet Hosmer was depicted as a lesbian. This is because of the female movement she was heading in Rome, and the sculptures she was designing. This art was considered masculine, and women who engaged in it, had some defaults. In the sculpture Beatrice Cenci, Hosmer depicts a girl, who is chained and condemned to die. The girl holds a rosary, and she is comfortable with her fate. This sculptor tells of a story of a girl who killed her father because of abuse (Culkin, 2010). Due to this crime, she was sentenced to die without consideration of the circumstances in which the father died.This piece of art denotes that any act of crime committed by women, will result to severe punishment by the male oriented society. On this note, women were expected to be submissive and obedient despite the oppression they were undergoing through. The style used to create this piece of art is neo-classical. This is because the artist uses an ancient Roman Hero, that is Beatrice Cenci and clean lines to bring out her point. This is a major characteristic of neo classical style of art. Another famous American female sculptor is Anne Whitney. She was born in 1821, and died in the year 1915. Whitney began her career in art in 1860s, when she
Barlow, M. (1999). Women artists. New York: Hugh Lauter Levin Associates.
Culkin, K. (2010). Harriet Hosmer: a cultural biography. Amherst: University of Massachusetts
Goggin, M. D., & Tobin, B. F. (2009). Women and things, 1750-1950: gendered material
strategies. Farnham, England: Ashgate.
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