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Weed Impact on Biodiversity: Bitou Bush Essay Example

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Weed Impact on Biodiversity: Bitou Bush

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The weed grows perennially to about 1-2m high and sometimes forms canopies growing up to 10m high, which have covered the undergrowth preventing them from accessing sunlight. The bush sprawls and covers a large area with branched stems which are woody. The shallow roots of the plants making it difficult to pull as the fibrous root system do not allow it 2015). When slashed, it sprouts and flowers producing more seeds spreading to the other areas and increasing the area under coverage. The invasive nature of the bush poses a lot of difficulties for the authorities tasked with controlling its spread. The bush has an extensive root system and is very hard to control its spread than the other plants such as the bone seed. The flowers appear dustered at the on the branches’ ends and are yellow in colour, and 20mm in diameter. The bush produces tiny berries with a green fleshy skin that turns brown once they mature, which attract birds that feed on them facilitating dispersal in other areas. The single seed contained in the fruit is egg-shaped and 5-7mm long and black in colour once it dries. The germination of the seeds is throughout the year although in autumn it is more due to the favourable conditions making it quite difficult for the authorities to eliminate it. The growth is very fast with some plants flowering within the first year after germination although some plants can take as long as 18 months or 3 years before flowering and lowers throughout the year. Plants growing in the North flower earlier than the ones growing in the South coast of New South Wales making the infestation of the plant difficult to control. Each Bitou plant produces about 50, 000 seeds in a year and the dispersal are by animals and birds, which lead to the spread of the bush in several areas 2015). Birds are the main means of seed dispersal as they eat the fruit and disperse the seeds several kilometres the other animals that feed on the fruits are rabbits and foxes, which pass the seeds in their stool facilitating seed dispersal (Schoeman, Buckley, Cherry, Long & Steadman, 2010). The other means of dispersal are human activities, water, and windblown sand.Bitou Bush is spreading very fast and further into the forests and woodlands in the coastal strip as the recent mapping has shown that infestations

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References

Adair, R. J., Morley, T., Morin, L., Julien, M., McFadyen, R., & Cullen, J. (2012).Chrysanthemoidesmonilifera (L.)T. Norl.–Bitou Bush and boneseed.Biological control of weeds in Australia. CSIRO, Melbourne, 170-183.

Cherry, H., Willsher, L., & Whyte, B. (2008).Bitou Bush and boneseed eradication and containment in Australia.Plant Protection Quarterly, 23(1), 38.

Cherry, H., Downey, P. O., & Winkler, M. A. (Eds.). (2008). Bitou Bush management manual: current management and control options for Bitou Bush (Chrysanthemoidesmonilifera ssp. rotundata) in Australia. NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change.

Downey, P., Cherry, H., Winkler, M., & Hamilton, M. (2012).Changes in the distribution and density of Bitou Bush ( Chrysanthemoidesmonilifera subsp. rotundata (DC.) T.Norl.) in eastern Australia. Retrieved 8 May 2015, from http://www.weeds.org.au/WoNS/Bitoubush/docs/Hamilton_et_al-Changes_in_D&D_of%20Bitou_bush-PPQ_Vol_27_no.1_PPQ.pdf

Ens, E. J., Bremner, J. B., French, K., &Korth, J. (2009). Identification of volatile compounds released by roots of an invasive plant, Bitou Bush (Chrysanthemoidesmonilifera spp. rotundata), and their inhibition of native seedling growth.Biological Invasions, 11(2), 275-287.

Edwards, P. B., Adair, R. J., Holtkamp, R. H., Wanjura, W. J., Bruzzese, A. S., & Forrester, R. I. (2009). Impact of the biological control agent Mesoclanispolana (Tephritidae) on Bitou Bush (Chrysanthemoidesmonilifera subsp. rotundata) in eastern Australia. Bulletin of entomological research, 99(01), 51-63.

French, K., Ens, E., Gosper, C. R., Lindsay, E., Mason, T., Owers, B., & Sullivan, N. (2008). Management implications of recent research into the effect of Bitou Bush invasion. Plant Protection Quarterly, 23(1), 24.

Hamilton, M. A., Turner, P. J., Rendell, N., & Downey, P. O. (2010).Reducing the threat of a nationally significant weed to biodiversity: four years of implementation of the NSW Bitou Bush Threat Abatement Plan.In Proceedings of the 17th Australasian Weeds Conference, ed. SM Zydenbos (pp. 166-9).

Hamilton, M. A., Winkler, M. A., & Downey, P. O. (2008).Native plant species at risk from Bitou Bush invasion: a field guide for New South Wales. Department of Environment and Climate Change.

King, S. A., & Downey, P. O. (2008).Assessing the recovery of native plant species following Bitou Bush control-the need for monitoring.Plant Protection Quarterly, 23(1), 40.

Markula, A., &Csurhes, S. (2015). Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation Biosecurity Queensland Steve Csurhes and Anna Markula —December 2010 Note: Please send any additional information, or advice on errors, to the author at steve.csurhes@deedi.qld.gov.au PR10_5592 Bitou Bush Chrysanthemoidesmonilifera subspecies rotundata Weed risk assessment. Retrieved 8 May 2015, from https://www.daf.qld.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0006/72825/IPA-Bitou-Bush-Risk-Assessment.pdf

Native Plants Species at Risk from Bitou Bush Invasion. (2015). Retrieved 8 May 2015, from http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/pestsweeds/07239idguidepartA.pdf

Toth, J., & Winkler, M. A. (2008).Bitou Bush aerial spraying in New South Wales-what have we learned?.Plant Protection Quarterly, 23(1), 43.

Schoeman, J., Buckley, Y. M., Cherry, H., Long, R. L., & Steadman, K. J. (2010).Inter‐population variation in seed longevity for two invasive weeds: Chrysanthemoidesmonilifera ssp. monilifera (boneseed) and ssp. rotundata (Bitou Bush).Weed research, 50(1), 67-75.

Sinden, J., Downey, P. O., Hester, S. M., &Cacho, O. (2008). Economic evaluation of the management of Bitou Bush (Chrysanthemoidesmonilifera subsp. rotundata (DC.) T. Norl.) to conserve native plant communities in New South Wales. Plant Protection Quarterly, 23(1), 34.

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preview essay on Weed Impact on Biodiversity: Bitou Bush
  • Pages: 12 (3000 words)
  • Document Type: Essay
  • Subject: Agriculture
  • Level: Undergraduate
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