This natural process, however, is time consuming and ineffective when excessive quantities of harmful substances are added to water (SDWF). This is precisely the problem that we face today. The excessive industrial waste has significantly hampered the natural cleansing process, leaving previously fresh water, polluted and not useful for the purposes it was meant for. Human waste contributes significantly to the problem also. Every day, approximately 2 million tons of human waste are disposed in water courses (UN Water). The dilemma of developing countries is alarmingly bad, approximately 70 percent of all industrial waste is dumped into waters, leading to the pollution of usable water supply.All water pollutants are dangerous to humans as well as lesser species. Some of the key ingredients of the most prevalent pollutants, including industrial waste, include sodium, which is implicated in cardiovascular diseases; nitrates are guilty of causing blood disorders, whereas mercury and lead can cause nervous disorders. DDT, which is found in some forms of industrial waste, is toxic and can not only impact living humans but can also affect chromosomes. Another dangerous toxic ingredient found in industrial wastes, PCBs, is known to cause liver and nerve damage, skin eruptions, vomiting, fever, diarrhea and significant fetal abnormalities (Geol).The impact of pollution from sewage and human wastes is also lethal. Dysentery, salmonellosis and hepatitis are some of the diseases transmitted by sewage in drinking and bathing water. This problem is extremely frequent in developing and less developing countries where there is no clear mechanism to separate fresh and drinkable water from polluted water (Tripathi and Pandey).The sources of water pollution can be divided into point sources and nonpoint sources. Point sources refer to factories, wastewater treatment facilities, septic systems, and other systems that are undeniably discharging hazardous pollutants into water. Identification of nonpoint sources is tougher because they cannot be traced back to any specific location. They including runoff including fertilizers, sediment, chemical and animal wastes, and other sources of pollution that are not easily identifiable (US EPA).Water pollution emanating from biodegradable waste consists of human and animal waste. When this form of waste enters into water supply, the water acts as an energy source for bacteria. This
Geol, P.K. Water Pollution - Causes, Effects & Control. New Age International, 2006.
SDWF. "Water Pollution." Safe Drinking Water Formulation Canada.
Tripathi, A.K and S.N Pandey. Water Pollution. APH Publishing, 1990.
UN Water. "World Water Assessment Programme." World Water Assessment Programme.
US EPA. Water Pollutants. <http://www.epa.gov/ebtpages/watewaterpollutants.html>.
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