In fact, the NGOs’ influence and activism are responsible for major changes in corporate behaviour and policy, so much so that Multinational corporations (MNCs) are increasingly confronted by a range of international agreements and codes of conduct (Agarwal, 1998; Cohen and Andrew, 1992) that govern and control their behaviour towards the environmental implication on the geographical areas of their operation. This can rightly be termed “global environmental pressure” (Jonathan and Terrence, n.d). Many NGOs view such Codes as means to control the excesses of globalization. In general, these Codes take the form of international agreements, or are sponsored by international organizations, or the private sector, or NGOs (cited in Lauren and David, 2006). It is only recently that some research efforts are emerging on the influence of NGOs on environment. This is the starting point for voluntary environmental reporting. There is a forthcoming research effort by Tilling and Tilt (2010) to evaluate how the rise of NGOs’ influence on environmental reporting is affecting business-government relations and how Codes of conduct on the environment will affect the operations of other shareholders and/or stakeholders such as private and public companies on specific industries (Quoted Lauren and David, 2006). Voluntary Environmental Reporting: NGOs Accountability Problems And Solutions.
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