In an effort to rid Iraq of these deadly weapons, various investigations were held, for instance the United Nations Special Commission investigation. Though the investigation revealed no substantial evidence indicating presence of such weapons, the US pledged to follow the policy aiming at containment toward Iraq. The containment initiatives involved economic sanctions, determining no fly zones and various inspections via UN to ensure that there is no imminent threat. However, with US President George W Bush taking over office in 2000, the US turned towards a more aggressive strategy against Iraq, since the entire election campaign of Bush rested on the removing Saddam Hussein. Yet, prior to 9/11, the chances of USA directly intervening militarily in Iraq seemed bleak. However, following the September 11 attacks, Bush decided that the administration must show no restraint and intervene in Iraq, though the decision is often questioned since there is no tangible evidence suggesting a direct link between the Al-Qaeda and Saddam Hussein2. Therefore, soon after the 9/11 attacks, while Bush help the Joint Session of the Congress where he announced the ‘war on terror’, a pre-emptive military striking option was also announced which is often referred to as the ‘Bush Doctrine’3. The pre-emptive military action was announced only after the officials from Bush Administration asserted over the premise that there is a covert relationship between Al-Qaeda and Saddam Hussein, and that an immediate action aimed at invasion of Iraq must follow.While US had pledged to invade Iraq by all means, states like France and Germany were actively advocating the use of non-violent means to resolve conflict. As a result, the UNSC adopted the resolution 1441 which implied that Iraq must comply by the standards and that it must authorize investigations over their facilities to ensure that weapons of mass destruction are not being created. This resolution offered a final opportunity to Iraq to comply by the disarmament standards and also to ensure inspections via the UN commission for inspection and the IAEA4. Saddam Hussein complied by the conditions allowed inspections, though there wasn’t any evidence found to confirm presence of nuclear weapons. There were however traces of substances which ‘could be’ utilized to produce weapons of mass destruction. However, without considering any recommendations from the UN, US passed the ‘Joint Resolution to Authorize the
Coates, Ulrichsen K. Basra, Southern Iraq and the Gulf: Challenges and Connections. The London School of Economics and Political Science, 2012. Internet resource.
DeFronzo, James. The Iraq War: Origins and Consequences. Bolder, CO: Westview Press, 2010. Print.
Hashim, Ahmed. Insurgency and Counter-Insurgency in Iraq. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2006. Print.
Ohaegbulam, Festus U. A Culture of Deference: Congress, the President, and the Course of the U.s.-Led Invasion and Occupation of Iraq. New York: Peter Lang, 2007. Print.
Weller, M. Iraq and the Use of Force in International Law. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010. Print.
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