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# Technical ReportII Essay Example

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## Technical ReportII

The criteria states that, a design is balanced when the largest cell number is not 3 times greater than the smallest cell number.Further exploration of the variables involved checking the effect of gender to Pre self-esteem variable. Table 2 gives the descriptive statistics of Pre self-esteem by gender. This shows that female scored highly on the pre self-esteem test than male.Independent sample t-test was adopted for this study. The test was to check if there was a significant difference in pre self-esteem of runners by gender (Male and female). This statistical test is appropriate when one has separate samples under the same treatment condition (Heiman, 2013). In this case the treatment was running. The population mean and standard deviation are normally not known. The key assumptions for the test are the sample populations under study must be independent, the scores in each population must be normally distributed, and the two populations must have equal variance (Sheskin, 2003). From the descriptive statistics above, the difference in the means indicate that these samples were independent of each other. The researcher screened the data before the actual analysis by independent sample t-test. Frequency Table 1 above indicated that there were no missing values. The box plot also indicated that there were no outliers that could reflect data entry errors in the study. The skewness and kurtosis values were within the acceptable range of -1.0 to 1.0 (Meyers et al.An independent sample t-test of pre self-esteem by gender was conducted. Male (n=17, M=29.24) and female (n=13, M=30.46) had standard deviations SD=6.34 and SD=5. This indicates that the two were not further spread from their means since their standard deviations were within acceptable range. The means of the two genders indicated that female gender scored higher than male on the pre self-esteem scale (see Table 3 below).Homogeneity of variance on the pre self-esteem data collected by gender was assessed using Levene’ test of equality of variance. Levene test indicated non-significant results, F=0. This indicated that the assumption on homogeneity of variance was met.The samples varied in testing for normal distribution as the pre self-esteem for male had a small negative skewness while pre self-esteem for female had zero skewness. According to Meyers, et al. (2006) criteria, skewness was within tolerance level of between -1.0 and 1.0 but kurtosis

References

Meyers, L. S., Gamst, G., & Guarino, A. J. (2006). Applied multivariate research: Design and interpretation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Myoung, H. (2010). Hypothesis testing and statistical power of a test. Working paper. The university information technology services (UITS) center for statistical and mathematical computing, Indiana University. < http://www.indiana.edu/~statmath/stat/all/power/power.pdf> Accessed 25 November 2014.

Sheskin, D. J. (2003). Handbook of parametric and nonparametric statistical procedures ed. Boca Raton, Fla: Chapman & Hall/CRC Press.

Appendix A Syntax for independent samples t-test

FREQUENCIES VARIABLES=Sex

/STATISTICS=STDDEV MEAN MEDIAN MODE SKEWNESS SESKEW KURTOSIS SEKURT

/ORDER=ANALYSIS.

FREQUENCIES VARIABLES=PreSelfEsteem

/STATISTICS=STDDEV MEAN MEDIAN MODE SKEWNESS SESKEW KURTOSIS SEKURT

/ORDER=ANALYSIS.

FREQUENCIES VARIABLES=PreSelfEsteem

/STATISTICS=STDDEV MEAN MEDIAN MODE SKEWNESS SESKEW KURTOSIS SEKURT

/HISTOGRAM NORMAL

/ORDER=ANALYSIS.

EXAMINE VARIABLES=PreSelfEsteem BY Sex

/PLOT BOXPLOT STEMLEAF

/COMPARE GROUPS

/STATISTICS DESCRIPTIVES

/CINTERVAL 95

/MISSING LISTWISE

/NOTOTAL.

T-TEST GROUPS=Sex(1 2)

/MISSING=ANALYSIS

/VARIABLES=PreSelfEsteem

/CRITERIA=CI(.95).

Appendix B Syntax for dependent sample t-test

GET

FILE=C:\Users\ema35\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Windows\Temporary Internet Files\Content.IE5\72GFPNKB\Running Weight Loss Program.sav.

DATASET NAME DataSet1 WINDOW=FRONT.

T-TEST PAIRS=PreWeight WITH PostWeight (PAIRED)

/CRITERIA=CI(.9500)

/MISSING=ANALYSIS.

T-TEST PAIRS=PostWeight WITH PreWeight (PAIRED)

/CRITERIA=CI(.9500)

/MISSING=ANALYSIS.

Appendix C Syntax for one-way ANOVA

MEANS TABLES=POSTBODY BY site

/CELLS=MEAN COUNT STDDEV

/STATISTICS ANOVA.

ONEWAY POSTBODY BY site

/STATISTICS DESCRIPTIVES HOMOGENEITY

/PLOT MEANS

/MISSING ANALYSIS

/POSTHOC=TUKEY BONFERRONI GH ALPHA(0.05).

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• Pages: 9 (2250 words)
• Document Type: Essay
• Subject: Statistics