The literature on the subject was also provided in depth, especially in the discussion section, to elaborate, prove and expound on the findings of the research. The references provided are current because most of them were within ten years prior to the year of publication of the article (2009). The article provided 27 references, 10 were published within the previous 10 years and 11 were published within 5 years. Only 6 references were published beyond the previous 10 years. The references are critiqued because they are academic books and articles from quality journals and publishers. The theoretical perspective is expressed explicitly. The literature on addiction treatment in areas of transformative change was reviewed. For example, the authors cited Forcehimes (2004) who studied the spiritual transformations in alcoholics. This supported the effectiveness of energy treatments on transformation of patients. This framework is based on the scientific theory derived from research about transformative change in medicine. The framework also identifies relationships among concepts, including transformative change and energy treatments.Research Objectives, Hypotheses, and QuestionsThe study does not clearly show the hypothesis and questions of research, but the research objectives are clearly indicated. One of the objectives of the study was to identify the effectiveness of using energy healing treatment on clinical therapy of patients with chronic pain. The second objective was to find out the number of treatment sessions that enhance successful intervention for the pain clinic. Lastly, one of the important objectives of the study was to establish the outcomes of patients undergoing energy healing, including transformative outcomes and whole-person outcomes. Variables are important for effective data analysis in a clinical research (Burns and Grove, 2007). The variables are also clearly stated to include number energy healing treatment sessions; frequency, intensity and duration of pain; views and attitudes of patients after treatment; and whole-person and transformative actions.
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