1860 and the First World War, when a wide range of techniques were established to generate steam by obtaining sun’s heat so as to run the irrigation pumps and engines (4). In 1954, at Bell Labs in the United States, Solar PV cells were used for generating electricity in space satellites (Timilsina et al.The energy provided by the sun can be directly collected and used to make high temperature steam, i. more than 1000 C, and low temperature steam, i. less than 1000 C (Energy Technology Fact Sheet). These methods are implemented in different types of power and heat techniques. The high temperature solar thermal system uses refractive surfaces such as mirrors for concentrating radiation from the sun, and the parabolic dish technology concentrates on radiation of the sun to a particular place to produce excess of temperature (Energy Technology Fact Sheet). The resultant high temperature is capable of producing steam which can be used to run an electric turbine generator or to provide power to chemical processes such as hydrogen production (Energy Technology Fact Sheet). The low temperature thermal system, on the other hand, is used for collecting radiation of the sun to heat water and air for various applications such as domestic and industrial solar water, space heater at home, offices and greenhouses, for solar cookers, agricultural drying, pool heating etc. (Energy Technology Fact Sheet).Like all technologies, solar thermal technology also has some drawbacks. The quality of thermoelectric materials is very low and the system is unable to obtain diffuse irradiation and so depends on the direct emission from the sun (10). The thermoelectric materials such as bismuth telluride are very expensive and are harmful, and for efficient working of the technology high temperature is required and new technologies have to be introduced for this purpose (10). This can cause additional expenses in terms of capital investment and maintenance charges. Solar thermal energy is a new idea in this field and researches are being carried out to make it efficient (Chu 10).Solar photovoltaic is also called solar cells, and these are electronic methods that directly convert sunlight into electrical energy (Renewable Energy Technologies 4). The photovoltaic technique consists of cells that produce electricity from sunlight and within the cell there are many layers of semi-conducting substances (10). When the sunlight falls on the cell, an electric field is produced in
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