The availability heuristic is described as a mental shortcut that focuses on immediate ideas that come to a person mind. For example, when people encounter a situation such as an accident and they are triggered to be cautious since they think the same might happen to them (Moustakas, 54). Availability Heuristic usually results in errors and misconceptions. Representativeness heuristic is a type of heuristic utilized by people to make a judgment. This applies in an example where one can get a description of a certain person and they judge their characters with it.A schema is a cognitive concept that enables people to categorize and interpret information presented to them. Schemas are effective since they allow people to interpret detailed information usually available in the environment. Schemas can cause people to exclude important information and focus on things that are based on the existing viewpoint and ideas. A schema usually contributes to stereotyping and this makes it difficult for people to retain information that is not conventional to the renowned ideas in the world. In conclusion, controlled processing is the thinking that usually occurs voluntarily and intentionally. This occurs when an individual experiences a situation they have ever experienced in the past. Automatic processing is non-conscious and it has effortless thoughts. This is because when individuals encounter a situation they have experienced before it is easier to analyze. Cognitive dissonance describes the discomfort feeling that results from holding different conflicting beliefs. In this case, a change in beliefs and behaviors is required to minimize the dissonance (Brehm, Jack, and Arthur, 65). Social Cognition.
Brehm, Jack W, and Arthur R. Cohen. Explorations in Cognitive Dissonance. New York: Wiley, 1962. Print.
Greenwald, Anthony G., and Mahzarin R. Banaji. "Implicit social cognition: attitudes, self-esteem, and stereotypes." Psychological review 102.1 (1995): 4.
Moustakas, Clark E. Heuristic Research: Design, Methodology, and Applications. Newbury Park: Sage Publications, 1990. Print.
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