The Okefenokee in Georgia is a typical prairie pothole. As a result, it receives direct precipitation and a considerable amount of runoff from the surrounding uplands as well as ground water inflow. It loses water to evaporation, keeping to groundwater or overflow in conditions of excess precipitation and runoff.Wetlands are considered as a complex ecosystem in which underground water and surface water interact with each other, but since the underground water can’t be observed its function in the cycle of wetlands is difficult to comprehend compared to that of surface water. Wetlands do have the ability to filter nutrients and other constituents, and this has resulted in the construction of artificial wetlands in other parts of the US Wielder (1989). However, wetland effectiveness in improving the quality of water relies on the hydrologic cycle, type of vegetation and the constituent concern Zedler and others, (1985).The features of wetland soils are because of anaerobic soil bacteria, both the facultative and obligate bacteria do exist in saturated areas of this kind of grounds. By law, the land is wetland when the wetland features are present on or near the surface of the ground. When soils are saturated, and the air removed from soil pores, anaerobic bacteria become the dominant in the microbic community of the soil. These bacteria use the non-oxygen substances as their electron acceptors. When organisms respire, they transfer electrons linearly from one molecule to another. From every transfer of electron, energy is produced for the organism’s life processes. In wetlands, the organisms use a variety of substances as electron acceptors such as nitrate, manganese, sulfate and carbon dioxide.Since ferric is quite common in most soils, anaerobic bacterium adds an electron to it resulting in ferrous iron. Soils containing ferrous oxide are white or gray in color while dryer ones are yellow or red. The presence of a gray soil near the surface of the soil is an indication of a wetland soil. Manganese, majorly black in color are also indicators of wetland Cohen (1984). Due to inefficiency of anaerobic bacteria in decomposition of matter, the wetland soils tend to be rich in organic matter than unsaturated soils, the horizon of the soils are entirely composed of organic matter.Wetland soils filter contaminants in three different ways, and physical filtration does occur when the
ReferenceCohen, A. D. (1984). The Okefenokee Swamp: Its natural history, geology, and geochemistry. Los Alamos, NM: Wetlands Surveys.
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