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The role of the frontal lobes in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Essay Example

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The role of the frontal lobes in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

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Lobes and particularly the prefrontal regions malfunctions, as some scientists claim (Oades, 1998; Boucugnani & Jones, 1989; Shue & Douglas, 1992; Aman, Roberts & Pennington, 1998). With respect to another scope of works in this field it can be claimed that dopamine is involved in reinforcement mechanisms and ADHD is usually connected with different types of the dopamine transporter and receptor genes, as well as with the dysfunction of the midbrain dopamine (Solanto, 2002; Dougherty, Bonab, Spencer, Rauch, Madras & Fischman, 1999; Tripp & Wickens, 2009; Madras, Miller & Fischman, 2005; Swanson et al. Nevertheless, the concept of ADHD has been restructured and reconsidered in theories of cognitive science and neuroscience. Such deviances as a lack of attention, a bad performance of executive functions, inability to motivate and process information temporarily refer ADHD disease to a disorder of self-regulation, relating it to a behavioral deficit and inability to adapt to a changing environment (Nigg, 2005; Sonuga-Barke, 2003; Toplak, Dockstader & Tannock, 2006; Willcutt, Doyle, Nigg, Faraone & Pennington, 2005). Having considered numerous researches and studies, it is evident that there are different approaches to the etiology of the disease. On basis of some facts it is clear that there is one single deficit in ADHD, which is a lack of dopamine transfer whilst other approaches relate different deficits to cognitive functions breaches. In terms of the neuro-cognitive model the ADHD can be explained as executive dysfunction, which is connected with hypersensitivity. Some other new theories clarify a challenging nature of the syndrome in terms of the frontal lobe theory of ADHD dating back to 1930. This approach explains the referred deficits in ADHD by drawing parallels with similar symptoms between patients with frontal lobe lesions.The frontal lobes integrate the precentral cortex, the prefrontal cortex, the orbitofrontal cortex and the superior mesial regions, which can be found in both the right and left cerebral hemispheres. The precentral cortex is responsible for physical movements control and the dorsolateral part of the frontal lobe is responsible for cognitive planning and executive functioning performance (McHugh, 1995). The verbal and spatial memory is related to the prefrontal cortex while the orbitofrontal cortex is connected with inhibition, control over social behavior and impulse (Kiran, Chaudhury, Kumari & Akhouri, 2011).

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preview essay on The role of the frontal lobes in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
  • Pages: 9 (2250 words)
  • Document Type: Essay
  • Subject: Psychology
  • Level: Undergraduate
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