Difficulties in enforcing environmental regulations due to complex nature of the industry and also due to the fact that most of the shipping processes are not open to public scrutiny (Shi, 2014). Most of the shipping fleet runs on diesel referred to as bunker oil which is known to be of lower quality than that used by vehicles, therefore, produces higher emissions per power output as compared to the regulated on-road diesel engines. The main concern from the research is the emissions of gases that cause harm to the environment at sea and the impact of the emissions on the well-being of those around the port (Expert Project Management, 2010).Climate change presents one of global issues that require elaborate response from the international community. One of the main contributors to climate change as previously mentioned is greenhouse gas emissions, which have attracted different opinions from the global community. According to Dai (2010) tackling, such climate change requires establishment of international climate change regime that entails rules, principles, norms, and procedures that can effectively combat range of activities within the global field. Various regulations have been developed at national, regional and international levels with focus to reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Some of these laws are documented in (UNFCCC) and Kyoto Protocol which are at the helm of promoting international climate change regime (United Nations, 1998).The contribution of GHG emissions from the shipping industry has been on the increasing trend. However, the producers of GHG companies are excluded from liabilities presented in Kyoto Protocol, which presents potential shortcoming on international climate change regime that requires further investigations. The current projected growth in demand for maritime shipping services leads to higher percentage carbon emissions. This requires establishment of efficient and aggressive regulatory policies by (IMO) and UNFCCC. According to UNCTAD 2012) approximately 55-77% of total emissions within port regions are caused by ships. Research by United Nations (2005) shows that at berth ship emissions can fundamentally be three to five times higher than emissions at the sea, therefore, determines level of concentration of exhaust emissions at ports. Improving energy efficiency through
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