Being a secondary qualitative study, the author has referred to previous studies on the research topic to identify trends in opioid use on patients with renal impairment. In this regard, there has been an appropriate reference to both quantitative and qualitative literature on the research topic (Burns & Grove, 2011). To engage in a comprehensive literature search, the authors arranged the pieces of literature in their orders of importance and sought more information from empirical studies of older journals, books and papers. On the other hand, the research included duplicate publications to lay the foundation for reviewing the extent to which the existing studies may be accurate in addressing the study topic. Also an important part of the literature search is that the study assessed them for quality. In effect, the researchers used a form to record publication details of the literature, their duration of the study, interventions and also the outcomes of the measured variables. Therefore, the literature review was provided in the form of a narrative analysis as opposed to the common meta-analysis since it would have been impossible to complete the multiple analyses because of the nature of the published data.The study is balanced in using the existing literature as there is the use of both literatures from the previous studies, dating back to 20 years ago and the recent studies, dating back to 5 years. Therefore, the research relies on both older and recent studies in substantiating that opioid use in cancer patients with renal impairment requires proper monitoring and prescription to avoid raising toxicity levels of the patient’s body.The literature review identified the weakness of the current literature especially on the health care professionals awareness of the relation between renal function and drug prescription. On the other hand, the literature search identifies gaps in the awareness of a patients renal function especially inadequate knowledge of how it is important for opioid prescription (King, Fores, Hanks, Ferro, & Chambers, 2011).
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