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Gaps in Educational Achievement Essay Example

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Gaps in Educational Achievement

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Gaps in Educational Achievement. Study-Kindergarten cohort (ECLS-K), the latest data administered by the Education Department, Fryer and Levitt demonstrated that can be eliminated by controlling for observable characteristics of the environment and school (Fryer and Levitt, 2004). The researchers asserted that the widens once students enter school (Fryer and Levitt, 2004). The author’s main argument is that black student’s underachievement is due to attending lower quality schools. The study is robust and compares results obtained in previous randomized studies with nonrandom sample frames.In a study that examined the extent to which family wealth affected test scores among young black and white students, Conley and Yeung (2008) found little evidence that the achievement gap between black and white students could be explained by wealth disparity.

The researchers used data from PSID, a longitudinal study using a sample size of 5,000 participants (Conley and Yeung, 2008). The study extended previous analyses to construct independent tests and measure the effects of wealth disparity and implications on the test score gap (Conley and Yeung, 2008). The researchers employed regression analysis to examine the relationship between family wealth and children’s test scores. The measurement of cognitive abilities included language skills, problem-solving problems, and literacy levels. The researchers used two age-standardized subscales to assess the cognitive abilities; Applied Problems (AP) and Letter-Word scores (Conley and Yeung, 2008). The study demonstrated large gaps between black and white students performance even before kindergarten level. Black students scored lower than their White counterparts in both tests (Conley and Yeung, 2008). The employment of multivariate analysis improved the robustness of the study. The analysis approach makes data visualization and interpretation easy while making it easy to understand the relationship between individual factors. Gaps in Educational Achievement.

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Card, D. & Rothstein, J. (2007). Racial Segregation and the Black-White Test Score Gap. University of California Berkeley, California.

Castellino, D. R., Darity, W., & Tyson, K. (2005). It’s not “a black thing”: Understanding the burden of acting white and other dilemmas of high achievement. American Sociological Review, 70 (4): 582-605.

Conley, D., & Yeung, W. J. (2008). Black – White achievement gap and family wealth. Child Development, 79, (2): 303-324.

Cooley, J. (2010). Desegregation and the achievement gap: Do diverse peers help? Duke University, Durham, NC.

Fryer, R. G., & Levitt, S. D. (2004). Understanding the black-white test score gap in the first two years of school. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 77, (2): 447-464.

Giroux, H. A., & Schmidt, M. (2004). Closing the achievement gap: A metaphor for children left behind. Journal of Educational Change, vol. 5: 213-228.

Hanushek, E. A., & Rivkin, S. G. (2006). School quality and the black-white achievement gap (Working Paper 12651). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.

Hauser, R. M. (1996). Trends in black-white test score differentials: I. Uses and misuses of NAEP/SAT data (CDE Working Paper No. 96-29). Center for Demography and Ecology, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Orr, A. J. (2003). Black-White Differences in Achievement: The Importance of Wealth. Sociology of Education, vol. 76: 281-304.

Rumberger, R. W., & Willms, J. D. (1992). The impact of racial and ethnic segregation on the achievement gap in California high schools. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 14, (4): 377-396.

Singham, M. (1998). The canary in the mine: The achievement gap between black and white students. Phi Delta Kappan, 80, (1): 8-15.

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