Facebook Pixel Code
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Linking Sports to Personality Essay Example

Show related essays

Linking Sports to Personality

This is a preview of the 10-page document
Read full text

Linking Sports to Personality. The two most important aspects of this decision-making process were developing social relationships and the acquisition of social validation (Tiano, 2007). The results of the study indicate that the external environment and social needs drive the majority of sports recreation decisions where self-concept is developed as a product of peer group influence. Building a more positive social network, rather than merely experiencing improved physical fitness, is the essence of sports involvement.  However, why is this? Abraham Maslow, a respected behavioural psychologist, developed a motivational hierarchy that describes a series of bottom-up tiers by which an individual evolves in order to maximise their personal growth and development.

These include basic needs at the physiological level, followed by safety needs, and an escalation to mid-tier needs that include establishing a sense of social belonging (Maslow, 1997). It is theorised under this psychological model that all tiers leading toward self-actualisation (the final realisation of self-fulfilment) must be experienced in sequential order as lower needs are satisfied. Belonging to this model include affection and relationship-development, along with appreciation or even self-concepts toward beauty and aesthetics. The model indicates these to be universal concepts in the human behavioural needs cycle and will be found within all individuals in a society.  With this foundational model in mind, it is not necessarily a revelation that youths and adults decide to engage in sports recreation in the process of attempting to reach their fullest potential as humans with a self-actualised, self-fulfilled desire for growth and self-improvement. The search for belonging and positive regard from others is what shapes self-concept, thus sporting activities where group affiliation is commonplace to provide an ideal environment for the satisfaction of basic human needs and desires.  Youths that engage in sports recreation would then find, under Maslow’s philosophy of needs fulfilment, a more positive sense of the self and identity development through group exercises such as sports.  . Linking Sports to Personality.

This is a preview of the 10-page document
Open full text


Anshel, M. & Mansouri, H. (2005). “Influences of perfectionism on motor performance, affect and causal attributions in response to critical information feedback”, Journal of Sport Behaviour. 28(2), pp.99-125.

Billikopf, G. (2009). “Conflict management skills”, University of California. Retrieved November 1, 2010 from http://www.cnr.berkeley.edu/ucce50/ag-labor/7labor/13.htm.

Brown, B.B. & Lohr, M.J. (1987). “Peer group affiliation and adolescent self-esteem: an integration of ego identity and symbolic interaction theories”, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 52, pp.37-55.

Clarkson, Michael. (1999). Competitive Fire. Champaign: Human Kinetics.

Conroy, D., Willow, J. & Metzler, J. (2002). “Multidimensional fear of failure measurement: the performance failure appraisal inventory”, Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, Vol. 14, pp.76-90.

Erdheim, J. & Wang, M. (2007). “Does the five-factor model of personality relate to goal orientation?”, Personality and Individual Differences, 43(6), pp.1493-1505.

Fullinwider, Robert K. (2008). “Sports, youth and character: a critical survey”, Institute for Philosophy and Public Policy University of Maryland. Retrieved November 2, 2010 from http://www.civicyouth.org/PopUps/WorkingPapers/WP44Fullinwider.pdf

Gagne, M., Ryan, R. & Bargmann, K. (2003). “Autonomy support and need satisfaction in the motivation and well-being of gymnasts”, Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, Vol. 15, pp.372-390.

Hargrave-Silk, Atifa. (2004). “Yao Ming signs up for McDonald’s contract”, Media, Hong Kong. Feb 26, p.4.

Hendry, L., Shucksmith, B., Love, J. & Glendinning, A. (1993). Young People’s Leisure and Lifestyles. London: Routledge.

Ingledew, D., Markland, D. & Sheppard, K. (2003). “Personality and self-determination of exercise behaviour”, Personality and Individual Differences, Vol. 36, pp.1921-1932. Retrieved November 1, 2010 from http://www.psych.rochester.edu/SDT/documents/2004_IngledewMarkland_HJP.pdf

Kinesiology100.com. (2008). “Foundations of kinesiology”. Retrieved November 2, 2010 from http://www.kinesiology100.com/chapters/CH14%20sample.pdf.

Maslow, A. (1997). “Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Motivational Model”. Retrieved November 1, 2010 from http://www.businessballs.com/maslow.htm

Mayer, J.D. (2005). “A classification of DSM-IV-RT mental disorders according to their relation to the personality system. In J.C. Thomas & D.L. Segal (Eds.), Comprehensive Handbook of Personality and Psychopathology Vol.1: Personality and Everyday Functioning. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Morris, C. & Maisto, A. (2005). Psychology: An Introduction. 12th ed. Pearson Prentice Hall.

Park, E.S. & Hinsz, V. (2006). “Strength and safety in numbers: a theoretical perspective on group influences on approach and avoidance motivation”, Motivation and Emotion. Vol. 30. pp.135-142.

Ronningstam, Elsa. (2005). Identifying and Understanding Narcissistic Personality. Oxford University Press, p.14.

Shaffer, David R. (2007). Social and Personality Development, 6th ed. United Kingdom: Wadsworth Cengage Learning. Tiano, Matt. (2007). “Youth and sports personality: an overview”. St. Olaf College. Retrieved November 1, 2010 from http://stolaf.edu/depts/cis/wp/tiano/coursework/youth_sports_and_personality.pdf

Ward, Toni M. (2006). “Differences in personality between non-athletes and athletes and between athletes participating in selected sports”, California State University. Retrieved November 1, 2010 from http://www.usc.edu/CSSF/History/2005/Projects/S0328.pdf

Wiggins, J.S. (Ed.). (1996). The Five-Factor Model of Personality: Theoretical Perspectives. New York: Guilford Press.

Close ✕
Tracy Smith Editor&Proofreader
Expert in: Sports & Recreation, Visual Arts & Film Studies, Tourism
Hire an Editor
Matt Hamilton Writer
Expert in: Sports & Recreation, Journalism & Communication, Education
Hire a Writer
preview essay on Linking Sports to Personality
WE CAN HELP TO FIND AN ESSAYDidn't find an essay?

Please type your essay title, choose your document type, enter your email and we send you essay samples

Contact Us