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The Promotion of Unhealthy Habits through Smoking Essay Example

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The Promotion of Unhealthy Habits through Smoking

The Promotion of Unhealthy Habits through Smoking. In the United States such resistance culminated in the Master Settlement Act (MSA) signed on November 1998 between 46 states and five territories and he major tobacco companies viz. Phillip Morris Companies (now known as Altria), RJ Reynolds Tobacco, Lorillard Tobacco, and Brown and Williamson. The MSA came into effect in 1999 and curbed outdoor cigarette advertising, transit advertising, cigarette-related cartoon characters, product placement in the media and tobacco merchandizing (Krugman et al, 2006, pp. Simultaneously, it had been made mandatory that all tobacco products carry health hazard warnings, and even more stringent laws have been enacted in states such as California to ban tobacco advertisements in youth magazines and sale of tobacco to young people.

In spite of all such anti-smoking measures, tobacco companies still managed to come up with novel ways of circumventing the law and rules and use advertisements to promote sales.The motto of the tobacco industry has always been to ‘catch them young’, but at the same time deny such intentions vehemently. Adolescents and youths are targeted by tobacco advertisements in order to initiate them into the habit of smoking. This fact is borne out by studies1 which have examined tobacco advertisement spendings in youth magazines as compared to such spendings in adult magazines, and have tried to gauge the extent of exposure of youths to tobacco advertisements in popular magazines with high youth readership. In their study, Krugman et al (2006) examined 28 youth magazines and 25 adult magazines over a period of 10 years from 1993 to 2002 to determine and compare the extent of tobacco advertising in the sample magazines for three major cigarette brands: Marlboro, Newport and Camel. The study also attempted to measure the extent of exposure to youths in the age range of 12 to 17 years in terms of reach and frequency in the case of youth, adult-based or other magazines. The study also attempted to compare the difference in exposure before and after the implementation of MSA in the US.The study found that the total expenditure on cigarette advertisements was considerably higher in youth-classified magazines. In fact 62% of both total expenditure and pages of cigarette advertisements figured in youth classified titles (Krugman et al, 2006, pp. The immediate effect of the. The Promotion of Unhealthy Habits through Smoking.

References

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DiRocco, Danae N., Shadel, William G. "Gender differences in adolescents responses tothemes of relaxation in cigarette advertising: Relationship to intentions to smoke." Addictive Behaviors; Feb2007, Vol. 32 Issue 2, p205-213, 9p.

Freeman, Dan, Brucks, Merrie, Wallendorf, Melanie, Boland, Wendy,. "Youths understandings of cigarette advertisements." Addictive Behaviors; Jan2009, Vol. 34 Issue 1, p36-42, 7p.

Gardner, Martha N., Brandt, Allan M. "The Physician in US Cigarette Advertisements, 1930-1953." American Journal of Public Health; Feb2006, Vol. 96 Issue 2, p222-232, 11p, 4 color, 2 bw.

Gilpin, Elizabeth A., White, Martha M., Messer, Karen, Pierce, John P. “Receptivity to Tobacco Advertising and Promotions Among Young Adolescents as a Predictor of Established Smoking in Young Adulthood.” American Journal of Public Health; Aug2007, Vol. 97 Issue 8, p1489-1495, 7p, 2 charts, 2 graphs.

Belstock, Sarah A., Connolly, Gregory N., Carpenter, Carrie M., Tucker, Lindsey. “Using Alcohol to Sell Cigarettes to Young Adults: A Content Analysis of Cigarette Advertisements.” Journal of American College Health; Jan/Feb2008, Vol. 56 Issue 4, p383-389, 7p, 3 charts.

Fernandez, Senaida, Hickman, Norval, Klonoff, Elizabeth A., Landrine, Hope, Kashima, Kennon, Parekh, Bina, Brouillard, Catherine, Zolezzi, Michelle, Jensen, Jennifer, Weslowski, Zorahna. "CIGARETTE ADVERTISING IN MAGAZINES FOR LATINAS, WHITE WOMEN, AND MEN, 1998-2002: A PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION." Journal of Community Health; Apr2005, Vol. 30 Issue 2, p141-151, 11p, 4 charts. OK, but I would like to see a focus on one group. For example, you could look just at teens.

Venger, Olesya, Wolburg, Joyce M. "Selling Sin" in a Hostile Environment: A Comparison of Ukrainian and American Tobacco Advertising Strategies in Magazines. Journal of Current Issues & Research in Advertising; Fall2008, Vol. 30 Issue 2, p49-63, 15p

Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen1. "Talk is Cheap: The Tobacco Companies Violations of Their Own Cigarette Advertising Code." Journal of Health Communication; Jul/Aug2005, Vol. 10 Issue 5, p419-431, 13p, 5 charts. OK, but again, I would like to see a focus on one demographic group.

Aloise-Young, Patricia A., Slater, Michael D., Cruickshank, Courtney C. "Mediators and Moderators of Magazine Advertisement Effects on Adolescent Cigarette Smoking." Journal of Health Communication; Apr/May2006, Vol. 11 Issue 3, p281-300, 20p, 3 charts, 2 graphs. Yongjun Sung1, Hennink-Kaminski, Heidi I.2. "THE MASTER SETTLEMENT AGREEMENT ND VISUAL IMAGERY OF CIGARETTE ADVERTISING IN TWO POPULAR YOUTH MAGAZINES." Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly; Summer2008, Vol. 85 Issue 2 p331-352, 22p.

Krugman, Dean M, Morrison, Margaret A, Sung, Yongjun. "Cigarette Advertising in Popular Youth and Adult Magazines: A Ten-Year Perspective." Journal of Public Policy & Marketing; Fall2006, Vol. 25 Issue 2, p197-211, 15p

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preview essay on The Promotion of Unhealthy Habits through Smoking
  • Pages: 13 (3250 words)
  • Document Type: Essay
  • Subject: Media
  • Level: Masters
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