Industrial processes recommend that crops that are rich in sugars or derivatives. The fruits juices are extracted and processed by adding several enzymes and microorganisms. In case of crops, the crops are grounded, refined and mixed with adequate amount of water, then enzymes and added and then the product is fermented. The basic steps of the process include the refining, adding distilled water, fermentation stage 1, fermentation stage 2, fermentation stage 3, distillation, pasteurization and dilution to suite the exact taste.Fruits, corn, wheat, sugar cane, sugar, palm sugar, rice, etc can be utilized in the vinegar making process. There is a large variety of crops that can be utilized to manufacture the vinegar. However, wood chips, wood pulp, soft pulp and coating of various fruits are also utilized to manufacture vinegar. To develop an appropriate taste of a fruit, vinegar is mixed with the fruit juice to develop consistent fruit tasting vinegar. While, sometime, raw wood, orange peels, vegetable flakes, etc are also added enhance the taste of the vinegar.During various stages of fermentation, different microorganisms are utilized to produce vinegar. At the very initial stage, the fruit juice or corn syrup is mixed with enzymes that convert the cellulose, starch, fructose or other forms of sugars into simple sugars. After that the syrup is mixed with the yeast that converts the simple sugar into ethanol. The process of adding yeast to the sugar syrup is simple process but prescribed amount of the yeast should be added. Yeast is living organism that is a type of fungus that feeds on sugars and release ethanol as the by product. The attained ethanol solution is again fermented by adding specified type of bacterial culture. Mostly Acetobacter or other types of acetic acid making bacteria are utilized to convert ethanol to vinegar.It is better to have different fermentation chamber for different fermentation stages to evaluate the gains and losses in the fermentation products after each stage of fermentation. Moreover, each fermentation stage should be fully completed to increase the yield of the product. During the last stage of the fermentation, some ethanol may be present in the vinegar. The ethanol should be removed. As, ethanol has a lower boiling point as compared to that of the water, it can be extracted during the process of pasteurization.The fermentation of the sugar syrup may take several days to several months in an
BibliographyChiang Tan, S. 2005. Vinegar Fermentation. B.S., Mechanical Engineering,. University of Louisiana.
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