In the modern world, transportation occurs over land, over the seas and over both land and sea through air routes using specialized forms of machines. Overland transportation occurs through road transportation or rail transportation. Transportation over the seas occurs through maritime transport or shipping, while aircraft provide the means of transportation over land and seas. Transportation over land requires the infrastructure of road or rail and transportation over road and rail is limited to the availability of this infrastructure for the plying of the machines and the load that can be carried is limited and very small in comparison to the volume that ships can carry across the seas. Shipping is also not restricted to the availability of infrastructure on the seas as ships ply on shipping lanes on the seas that are merely imaginary lines drawn on the seas. Air transportation is also free from any infrastructure requirements, but the volume of freight that can be handled is extremely limited. In essence, the difference between shipping and other forms of transport is the flexibility that shipping offers in that it can carry small and very large volumes of freight across all seas and oceans. In these times when pollution and global warming come to the fore, the comparison of the various forms transportation in this regard is also useful. Road transport is the most polluting and the largest contributor to global warming of any form of transportation. Air transport is next in line with regard to pollution and contributing to global warming, while rail transport is the least polluting. It is only shipping that contributes to global cooling because the gases that emitted by shipping like SO2 and NOX are positive coolants. Therefore increased shipping does not pose pollution or global warming issues. The hub and spoke logistic model is cost-effective for moving small volumes of goods to and from locations through consolidation and transshipment.
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