Deforestation is popular in forests, which are also the catchment areas of rivers. Some farmers practice poor farming methods that loosen the soil structure. Activities such as overstocking and overgrazing deprive the land vegetation cover that cements soil particles together. Runoff from these areas contains sediments that are washed into water sources. Sediment loading increases the amount of soil particles and minerals in water sources. In urban areas, industries produce chemical effluent and gases that contaminate water pathways and the atmosphere (157). These gases dissolve in rain water to form acidic rainfall or increase chemical components in the water. Industrial waste washed into watersheds contains poisonous metals and chemicals that cause health complication in animals and humans. Planners must consider the effect of different land uses on the water quality. Minimizing effluent from industries and agricultural can improve the quality of water distributed to homesteads.The federal government passed the Clean Water Act that regulates discharges of pollutants into water bodies and regulates the quality standards for surface water. In this act, EPA has implemented programs to control water pollution such as setting wastewater standards for industries. According to CWA, discharging pollutants from a point source into navigable waters is unlawful unless a permit is acquired. Point sources are conveyances such as man-made ditches and pipes that carry water. The act also provides assistance to public water treatment projects that improve wastewater treatment (160). These projects convert wastewater to safe water that can be utilized by ordinary citizens. Industries cannot discharge waste water directly into public water treatments areas without prior purification. The pretreatment aims at reducing toxic wastes discharged into these treatment works. EPA has also developed technology-based standards for industries using POTWs to discharge their wastewater. These standards apply to industries in all states that produce effluent that may reach water bodies.Treated wastewater produces biosolids that can be used in agriculture. Treated sewage sludge is used for agricultural purposes. EPA conducted a risk assessment and established limits for use of biosolids in land application. The solid must meet the minimum standards for environmental and human
Work citedDaniels, Thomas L., and Katherine Daniels. The Environmental Planning Handbook for Sustainable Communities and Regions. Chicago: Planners Press, American Planning Association, 2004. Print.
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