These are: planned formative assessments and interactive assessments. As the name suggests, planned formative assessments are those that are use to obtain tangible evidence on the way pupils think about a concept that they have been taught in class. These types of assessments are normally semi-formal and may be taken at the beginning or at the end of a certain topic. In these assessments, some assessment activities are prepared to furnish evidence that can be used to improve pupils’ learning. The information that is elicited from such an activity is used to gauge the level of understanding of the students and to structure instruction so that knowledge and skill development are enhanced (Tuttle 2009).Interactive assessment takes place during the interaction process between teacher and pupil. Hall and Burke (2004) describe this assessment as the one that includes incidental and ongoing assessments which arise from learning activities and it cannot be anticipated. This means that interactive assessments can occur at any time as the teacher and pupils are interacting in a learning setting (Black, Harrison and William 2003). This assessment aims at improving learning through mediation and intervention. The teacher may notice or recognize the learner’s thinking and can then respond to it appropriately. This kind of assessments is considered to be more pupil and teacher driven than it is curriculum driven. Unlike planned assessment that results in permanent information, interactive assessment accrues information that is ephemeral (Sadler 1998). This means that the teacher can identify weak areas in the child’s learning and correct them quickly so as to avoid accumulated misconception on the learner’s side.Formative assessments can be in the form of observations, worksheets, pop quizzes, journals and diagnostic tests. Observation involves the instructor making observations about students’ progress as they go about a certain project (Black and William 2003). Worksheets can be used by the teacher in the form of homework to assess areas in the students’ learning that need modifications (Tuttle 2009). Pop quizzes can be used as formative assessments to gauge the level at which students comprehend a certain concept. Reflective journals are also ideal for use as tools of formative assessments as they can be used to gauge what pupils think about a topic and how well they comprehend
Ainsworth, L., Viegut, D. (2006). Common Formative Assessments. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
Alexander, R.J. (1997). Policy and Practice in Primary Education: Local Initiative, National Agenda. London: Routledge.
Bennett, R.E. (2011). Formative Assessment: A Critical Review. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy and Practice. 18(1): 5-25.
Black, P.J. and Wiliam, D. (1998). Assessment and Classroom Learning. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy and Practice. 5(1): 7-73.
Black, P.J. and William, D. (2003). In Praise Of Educational Research: Formative Assessment. British Educational Research Journal 29 (5): 623–637.
Black, P. J., and William, D. (2009). Developing the Theory of Formative Assessment. Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability, 21(1): 5-31.
Black, P., Harrison, C. and William, D. (2003) Assessment for Learning: Putting It into Practice. Berkshire, England: Open University Press.
Conner, C. (1999). Assessment in Action in the Primary School. London: Falmer Press.
Crooks,, T. (2001). The Validity of Formative Assessments. British Educational Research Association Annual Conference, University of Leeds, September 13-15.
Duschl, R.D. and Gitomer, D.H. (1997). Strategies and Challenges to Change the Focus of Assessment and Instruction In Science Classrooms. Educational Assessment, 4 (1): 37-73.
Fisher, D. and Frey, N. (2007). Checking for Understanding: Formative Assessment Techniques for Your Classroom. Alexandria, VA: ASCD
Garrison, C., & Ehringhaus, M. (2007). Formative and Summative Assessments in the Classroom. Retrieved 6 Oct., 2011 from http://www.amle.org/Publications/WebExclusive/Assessment/tabid/1120/Default.aspx
Hall, K. and Burke, W. (2004). Making Formative Assessment Work: Effective Practice in the Primary Classroom. Berkshire, UK: Open University Press.
Heritage, M. (2010). Formative Assessment: Making it Happen in the Classroom. London: Corwin.
Huhta, A. (2010). Diagnostic and Formative Assessment: In Spolsky, B. and Hult, F.M. The Handbook of Educational Linguistics. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
Marzano, R.J. (2003). What Works in Schools: Translating Research into Action. Alexandria, VA: ASCD
Nicol, D.J. and Macfarlane-Dick, D. (2006). Formative Assessment and Self-Regulated Learning: A Model and Seven Principles of Good Practice. Studies in Higher Education 31 (2): 199–218
Sadler, D.R. (1998) Formative Assessment: Revisiting the Territory. Assessment in Education, 5(1), 77-84.
Tuttle, H.G. (2009). Formative Assessment: Responding to Your Students. New York: Eye on Education.
Please type your essay title, choose your document type, enter your email and we send you essay samples