Hence for the obtained swing value, R1=R2 and Vb =0 would be true.A Low Pass Filter allows signals with frequency components lower than a given cutoff frequency. The Low Pass Filter also attenuates signals that have frequency components higher than the specified cutoff frequency. In this design, the cutoff frequency is made to be 100Hz. A well calibrated operational amplifier is used to achieve LPF circuit. The LPF section and frequency calculations are as shown below;The LPF is connected with the amplifier. The amplifier is acting as voltage follower hence making the design act as a buffer too. It is important to note that the amplifier has a infinite or high input impedance in order to avoid loading the LPF. on the other hand, the amplifier is characterized with low output. The low output signal prevents the filter cutoff frequency point from being effective. This is achieved by changing the output load resistance. The combined parts form a circuit as shown below;From the output signal obtained above, the level shifter output shifts the signal from zero to 2.5 volts in a span of 100 seconds. According to design requirements, the output voltage signal should lie between 2 volts and 3 volts. Therefore, the frequency of input current signal of -2.5mA to 2.5 mA becomes;The design of an 8-bit counter can be achieved by using D flip-flop. Also, it is imperative to write the table of current stage and next stage. This method enables construction of various types of counters; 2-bit, 4-bit, 8-bit. The internal circuit of an 8-bit counter is as shown;A 7 segment display is usually made up of seven independent LEDs. The display normally deals with 8-bit output signals and later converts them to 7 segments. In most cases, a 7 segment display comprises of two common cathode and common anode. A table can be constructed by using POS equation to design configuration of LEDs. Actually, a NAND gate is used in the design of LEDs. The table is as shown;Notably, the first four bits represent Most Significant Bits while the rest of the bits represent the Least Significant Bits. The figure below shows Least Significant Bits and the Most Significant Bits of the Analog to Digital
ReferenceEngineers Garage, 2012, Seven Segment Display. Retrieved on 28th April, 2015, from http://www.engineersgarage.com/electronic-components/7-segment-display.
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