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The Overview of Programming Languages Essay Example

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The Overview of Programming Languages

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The Overview of Programming Languages. Programming languages vary widely in this surface form. Most programming languages are textual — that is, they consist of sequences of "words" and "punctuation marks", much like written natural languages. However, some exotic programming languages are partly or entirely graphical — such graphical programming languages (or "visual programming languages") use spatial relationships among stylized pictorial representations to communicate their meaning.Regardless of their surface form, all programming languages also specify a semantics, or "meaning", for each syntactic construct in the language.Internally, all data in modern digital computers are stored simply as zeros or ones (binary). The data typically represent information in the real world such as names, bank accounts and measurements and so the low-level binary data are organized by programming languages into these high-level concepts.

The particular system by which data are organized in a program is the type system of the programming language; the design and study of type systems is known as type theory. Languages can be classified as statically typed systems, and dynamically typed languages. Statically-typed languages can be further subdivided into languages with manifest types, where each variable and function declaration has its type explicitly declared, and type-inferred languages. It is possible to perform type inference on programs written in a dynamically-typed language, but it is entirely possible to write programs in these languages that make type inference infeasible. Sometimes dynamically-typed languages are called latently typed.Data structure is a way of storing data in a computer so that it can be used efficiently. Often a carefully chosen data structure will allow a more efficient algorithm to be used. A well-designed data structure allows a variety of critical operations to be performed, using as little resources, both execution time and memory space, as possible. Data structures are implemented using the data types, references and operations on them provided by a programming language.Since programming languages are artificial languages, they require a high degree of discipline to accurately specify which operations are desired. Programming languages are not error tolerant; however, the burden of recognizing and using the special vocabulary is reduced by help messages generated by the. The Overview of Programming Languages.

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Bibliography

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1. www.levenez.com/lang/

www.oreilly.com/go/languageposter

http://people.ku.edu/~nkinners/LangList/Extras/langlist.htm

2. http://www.osdata.com/topic/language/asm/Programming Languages.htm

3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Programming_language

4. http://www.reference.com/

5. http://dmoz.org/about.html

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