g. right or wrong values). Universal and Particular Values Universal and particular values generalize one’s dependence or independence with laws to mediate others in an organization. Universalistic people fundamentally follow the laws with contractual agreements without considering others’ reasons. On the other side, particularists value friendships than policies. Hence, these people would amend the laws to change the strict rules to save a companion. Individual and Communitarian Values The values refer to one’s independent or dependent self-construal. Independent individuals feel worthy to work without bothering others (Gutterman, 2010). In contrast, communitarian individuals prefer a connectedness to others as a source of motivation to work. This could mean that communitarian people value their work as they are inspired to feel the presence of others.
Specific and Diffuse ValuesSpecific/diffuse refer to how an individual takes things as a whole. People who are adept at specifics take their personal life and work separately (Gutterman, 2010). They would do and give different tasks to others one at a time like the Americans. In contrast, people who use the diffuse values tend to multitask by combining work and leisure time like the Japanese. Moreover, diffuse members would even distribute diverse tasks to others. . Onion Model.
Gutterman A. (2010). Trompenaars’ and Hampden-Turner’s seven dimensions of
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Hofstede: Cultures and organizations-Software of the mind. (n.d.). Retrieved from
Trompenaars’ four diversity cultures. (2012). Retrieved from
Trompenaars, F., & Woolliams, P. (2003). Business across cultures. West Sussex,
ENG: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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