Onion Model Onion model represents an organizational culture with four layers Hofstede: Cultures,” n.d The utmost layer contains the symbols with observable behavior (e.g. people’s interaction) and artifacts (e.g. technological equipments). The second utmost layer of the model includes the heroes, which pertain to people (e.g. productive workers) who can benefit the company. The next layer contains the rituals that could influence one’s belief to how others would be treated. For example, one’s ritual belief entails courtesy to respect others. Interestingly, the core layer of the onion model consists of the values that embrace an emotional state and knowledge of a proper and improper behavior (e.g. right or wrong values).
Universal and Particular Values
Universal and particular values generalize one’s dependence or independence with laws to mediate others in an organization. Universalistic people fundamentally follow the laws with contractual agreements without considering others’ reasons. On the other side, particularists value friendships than policies. Hence, these people would amend the laws to change the strict rules to save a companion.
Individual and Communitarian Values
The values refer to one’s independent or dependent self-construal. Independent individuals feel worthy to work without bothering others (Gutterman, 2010). In contrast, communitarian individuals prefer a connectedness to others as a source of motivation to work. This could mean that communitarian people value their work as they are inspired to feel the presence of others.
Specific and Diffuse Values
Specific/diffuse refer to how an individual take things as a whole. People who are adept to specifics take their personal life and work separately (Gutterman, 2010). They would do and give different tasks to others one at a time like the Americans. In contrast, people who use the diffuse values tend to multitask by combining work and leisure time like the Japanese. Moreover, diffuse members would even distribute
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