Facebook Pixel Code
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Occupational Psychology: Question to answer: Job performance is affected by various individual and organizational factors. Demonstrate, using examples Essay Example

Show related essays

Occupational Psychology: Question to answer: Job performance is affected by various individual and organizational factors. Demonstrate, using examples

This is a preview of the 10-page document
Read full text

Research was pioneered not in psychology but by engineers looking to boost industrial performance through application of scientific methods at the workplace (Arnold et al. At first the focus was mainly on scientific management, this emphasized efficient ways of performing tasks by employees to improve production. Although the scientists focused on production efficiency, their concepts included a lot of psychological perspectives. One of the pioneers of scientific management concepts in industry was Frederick Winslow Taylor. Taylor suggested the careful analysis of jobs to determine optimal ways of performing related tasks, hiring of employees based on their ability to perform tasks, training of employees, and rewarding of employees in proportion to their productivity as a motivation to higher performance. Psychologists started playing a larger role in occupational science during the First World War starting in 1914, notably in the armies. According to Cascio and Aguinis (2008), psychological influence was applied in the military particularly in determining recruitment and training methods. After the war this influence spread into the private business world as psychologists, engineers and managers came up with various theories for employee engagement.Between 1927 and 1932, Elton Mayo conducted the famous Hawthorne studies in an electrical company in Chicago. The most important outcome of these studies in that their findings revealed the psychological effect of work environment for the first time. The studies indicated that any workplace is a social system whereby relations between workers and their colleagues or the work environment cannot be predicted or determined. Employee ability and fit to task was highlighted as being important but the psychological ability to cope with the social environment of the workplace was of greater importance (Michie and West, 2004). According to the findings of the Hawthorne studies, social pressure and group characteristics had a significant impact on employee performance. The approach by Elton Mayo realigned researchers’ focus from scientific management to emphasis on human relations. The main focus of the human relations approach is on psychological attributes of employees and their managers such as attitudes, morals, values, and morale (Michie and West, 2004). Although work is commonly viewed at a means of meeting personal economic needs, the human relations approach pints out that employees work in

This is a preview of the 10-page document
Open full text


Anderson, N., Lievens, F., van Dam, K. and Ryan, A.M. (2004). Future perspectives on employee selection: key directions for future research and practice. Applied Psychology, 53 (4), 487–501.

Arnold et al. (2010).Work Psychology: Understanding Human Behaviour in the Workplace (5th Ed.). Essex: Pearson Education.

Brough, P. and O’Driscoll, M.P. (2010). Organisational interventions for balancing work and home demands: an overview. Work & Stress, 24 (3), 280–97.

Cascio, W.F. and Aguinis, H. (2008). Research in industrial and organizational psychology from 1963 to 2007: changes, choices, and trends. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93 (5), 1062–81

Fredrickson, B.L. (1998). What good are positive emotions? Review of General Psychology, 3, 300-319.

Gajendran, R.S. and Harrison, D.A. (2007). The good, the bad, and the unknown about telecommuting: meta-analysis of psychological mediators and individual consequences. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92 (6), 1524–41.

Goleman, D. (1998). Working with Emotional Intelligence. London: Bloomsbury.

Hart, P.M. (1999). Predicting Employee Life Satisfaction: A coherent Model of Personality, Work and Nonwork Experiences, and Domain Satisfactions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84, 564-584.

Hart, P.M., and Cooper, C.L. (2001). Occupational Stress: Toward a more integrated framework. Handbook of industrial, work and organizational psychology. London: Sage

Kersley, B., Alpin, C., Forth, J., Bryson, A., Bewley, H. and Dix, G. (2004). First Findings from the 2004 Workplace Employment Relations Survey. London: Routledge.

Loughlin, C. and Barling, J. (2001). Young workers’ work values, attitudes, and behaviours. Journal of Occupational and Organisational Psychology, 74 (4), 543–58

Michie, S. and West, M.A. (2004). Managing people and performance: an evidence based framework applied to health service organizations. International Journal of Management Reviews, 5–6 (2), 91–111.

Morrison, D. and Payne, R.L. (2003). Multilevel approaches to stress management. Australian Psychologist, 38, 128-137.

Patterson, F. (2001). Developments in work psychology: emerging issues and future trends. Journal of Occupational and Organisational Psychology, 74 (4), 381–90.

Patterson, F. (2002) ‘Great minds don’t think alike? Person-level predictors of innovation at work. International Review of Industrial and Organisational Psychology, 17, 115–44

Salovey, P. and Mayer, J.D. (1990). Emotional Intelligence. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 9, 185-211.

Wyatt, M.R.R., Pathak, S.B. and Zibarras, L. (2010) Advancing selection in an SME: is best practice methodology applicable? International Small Business Journal, 28 (3), 258–73.

Close ✕
Tracy Smith Editor&Proofreader
Expert in: Psychology, Culture, Religion and Theology
Hire an Editor
Matt Hamilton Writer
Expert in: Psychology, Science, Philosophy
Hire a Writer
preview essay on Occupational Psychology: Question to answer: Job performance is affected by various individual and organizational factors. Demonstrate, using examples
  • Pages: 10 (2500 words)
  • Document Type: Essay
  • Subject: Psychology
  • Level: Undergraduate
WE CAN HELP TO FIND AN ESSAYDidn't find an essay?

Please type your essay title, choose your document type, enter your email and we send you essay samples

Contact Us