Other immigrants were from Italy and Ireland (Foner, 2000, 80 & Dolan, 2010, 354).Initially, political parties did not exist. Leadership fell on the hands of local elites and leading families. Voting procedures were undemocratic because only white adult males were allowed to possess the voters’ card. Appeals for election candidates were not seriously taken. Voting was done by voice, citizens had little say in presidential elections and only few voted. Election participation was generally low since women did not vote. The eighteenth century saw a revolution in American politics; policies for voting procedures were established. Voice voting was abolished and participation in voting increased. Electoral candidates could then appealing using speeches, newspapers, parades, rallies, and barbecues to quest for political support. Property qualifications for voting and leadership were abolished under the new constitution, all adult males were allowed to vote, whether rich or poor. Later, the taxpaying and military serving qualifications were abolished and universal white manhood suffrage was established. More polling stations were opened and secret ballot was instituted. Women including African Americans were allowed to vote (Keith, 1990, 96). New York City.
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Foner, N. (2000) From Ellis Island to JFK: Two Great Waves of Immigration. Yale University Press.
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