Branford, Evans and Nelson (2001, p. 788) assert that it is through involuntary contraction of cervical muscles that neck pain is experienced. However, it is important to note that when muscles are involved in the causation of neck pain the condition is usually referred to as myofascial pain syndrome. Chronic neck pain is described as a neck pain that is experienced for a period of more than three months and may lead to disability. Gatchel, Mayer and Theodore (2006, p. 72)points out that chronic pain of the neck has many aspects which include the sensory experience of the pain, intensity, emotional aspect and the disability which results from the pain. Because of the apparent seriousness of neck pain, measures of measuring it becomes necessary for reasons of research or clinical treatment.To measure the neck pain, some scales have been designed by researchers. Scales such as the Pain Disability Index (PDI) and the Oswestry Disability Scale are considered to be general pain measurement as explained by Jorritsma, Vries and Reneman (2012, p. The need for subjectivity and specificity in the measuring of the pain index which is associated with the cervical spine led to the reliable and valid scales to measure neck pain. Pressure algometry for example was applied in the measurement of neck pain through measuring muscle tenderness around the neck. Because this approach was affected by the threshold of pain that a patient was able to withstand, it was considered less valid for the measurement of neck pain. is an ultra modern development that is considered as the most comprehensive neck pain measurement tool and thus valid and reliable as explained by Durand, Loisel and Charpentier (2002, p.Skelly (2008, p. 67) says that the validity is demonstrated by its ability to measure all components of neck pain. In clinical tests for a study population was analyzed on the general neck problems and the pain intensity. Moreover, the study population was measured in relation to how neck pain affected their emotions and cognition. The effect of neck pain on the functionality of the patients was also measured by this method. The results illustrated 76% variance from the 20 items which were loaded with an intension of measuring all the four components of neck pain. Vernon
Agarwal, S, Allison, G, Agarwal, A, and Singer, K 2006, Reliability and validity of the Hindi version of the Neck Pain and Disability Scale in cervical radiculopathy patients, Disability and Rehabilitation, 28, 22, pp. 1405-1412.
Bronfort G, Evans R, and Nelson B, A 2001, “Randomized clinical trial of exercise and spinal manipulation for patients with chronic neck pain, Spine, 26:788–797
Bremerich, F, Grob, D, Dvorak, J, and Mannion, A 2008, The Neck Pain and Disability Scale, Spine, 33, 9, pp. 1018-1027.
Blozik, E, Himmel, W, and Scherer, M 2011, Sensitivity to change of the Neck Pain and Disability Scale, European Spine Journal, 20, 6, pp. 882-889
Clair, D, Edmondston, S, and Allison, G 2004, Variability in pain intensity, physical and psychological function in non-acute, non-traumatic neck pain, Physiotherapy Research International, 9, 1, pp. 43-54.
Durand, M., Loisel, P. and Charpentier, N. 2002, "Helping Clinicians in Work Disability Prevention: The Work Disability Diagnosis Interview", Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 191-204.
Goolkasian, P 2003, "Neck Pain and Disability Scale: a critical evaluation", Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 379-82.
Gatchel, R.J., Mayer, T.G. and Theodore, B.R. 2006, "The Pain Disability Questionnaire: Relationship to One-Year Functional and Psychosocial Rehabilitation Outcomes", Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 72-94.
Howell, ER 2011, The association between neck pain, the Neck Disability Index and cervical ranges of motion: a narrative review, Journal of the Canadian Chiropractic Association, 55, 3, pp. 211.
Jorritsma, W, Vries, G, and Reneman, M 2012, Neck Pain and Disability Scale and Neck Disability Index: validity of Dutch language versions, European Spine Journal, 21, 1, pp. 93-100.
Jorritsma, W, de Vries, G, and Reneman, M 2010, Neck Pain and Disability Scale and the Neck Disability Index: reproducibility of the Dutch Language Versions, European Spine Journal, 19, 10, pp. 1695-1701.
Lord S. M, Barnsley L. and Wallis BJ, 1996, “Percutaneous radio-frequency neurotomy for chronic cervical zygapophyseal-joint pain, N Engl J Med, 335:1721–1726
Persson L., 2006, “Neck pain and pillows: a blinded study of the effect of pillows on non-specific neck pain, headache and sleep”, Adv Physiother, 8:122–127.
Provinciali L., Baroni M. and Illuminati L, 1996, “Multimodal treatment to prevent the late whiplash syndrome”, Scand J Rehabil Med, 28:105–111.
Scherer, M, Blozik, E, and Herrmann-Lingen, C 2008, Psychometric properties of a German version of the Neck Pain and Disability Scale, European Spine Journal, 17, 7, pp. 922-929
Skelly, A. 2008, "Neck pain task force collars best treatments", Medical Post, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 1-76.
Stratford P. W, Binkley F. M, Riddle D. L., 1996, “Health status measures: strategies and analytic methods for assessing change scores”, PhysTher, 76(10):1109–1123
Vernon H, Mior S., 1991, “The neck disability index: a study of reliability and validity”, J Manipulative Physiol Ther, pp. 409–415.
Witt, C, Jena, S, and Willich, S 2006, Acupuncture for patients with chronic neck pain, Pain (03043959), 125, 1/2, pp. 98-106,
Wheeler A. H., Goolkasian P., 1999, “Development of the Neck Pain and Disability Scale”, Spine, 24(13):1290–1294.
Please type your essay title, choose your document type, enter your email and we send you essay samples