185; Levinson 2008, p. The highly resistant nature of mycobacterium explains the easy transmission and difficult prevention of the infectious diseases.The general features about the M. tuberculosis highlight the growth rate of the pathogen, nutritional requirements, strains of the bacterium which are helpful in assessing the treatment plans and diagnostic therapies. tuberculosis grows at a very slow pace and it takes 18 hours to get doubled. Thus, in comparison to other bacteria it has a slower growth rate. As mentioned earlier, M. tuberculosis is an obligate aerobic, hence it requires oxygen majorly for its growth. The media used for its growth is Lowenstein-Jensen medium that uses complex nutrients to support its growth. These include egg yolk and some dyes like malachite green. The dyes are used to inhibit the growth of other bacteria present in the sputum samples (Levinson 2008, p. Although the M. tuberculosis has a very slow doubling rate, it can be grown quite favorably in the laboratory environment by providing supporting nutrients.The important properties of M. tuberculosis include the appearance and dimensions, the virulent strains and the chemical compositions. tuberculosis appears as curved slender rods that are 2 to 4 um long and 0.5 um wide. The bacterium possesses a particular “cord factor” that causes its virulence. The virulent strains grow in a serpentine fashion while the avirulent strains lack this property. The high lipid content in cell wall constituting of mycolic acids and phosphatides are the factors for causing acid-fact property and caseation necrosis, respectively (Levinson 2008, p. 161; St Georgiev 2009, p. tuberculosis is transferred from one individual to another by inhalation of respiratory aerosol of infected person and repeated or prolonged contact. As it is resistant to drying, the bacteria can persist for long in the dried up sputum as well. Humans are the natural reservoirs for the pathogen. After inhalation, mycobacterium enters the alveoli and multiplies in the pulmonary epithelium or the macrophages. tuberculosis that survives causes two types of lesions either exudative or granulomatous. The primary lesion is mostly in the lungs in the lower lobes of lungs. However, the spread of organism can occur through erosion of the tubercle into bronchus or through hematogenous spread. The extrapulmonary sites include the gastrointestinal tract, kidney, brain and bone
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St Georgiev, V. (2009). National Institute of Allergy and infectious diseases, NIH. /Volume 2, Impact on global health. Totowa, N.J. : Humana Press.
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