The musical instruments used were: a portative organ, lutes, fiddle, and cornetti; a hunting horn; a pipe and tabor; a harp and jingle ring; a rebec; and a cittern.Humanism: The reform program of humanism was based on the application of its distinctive knowledge and techniques to social reform; it aimed at a regeneration of moral and spiritual life, of political and ecclesiastical institutions, and of education. It might be more accurate to say that the reform of education was the key to all the other parts of the humanistic program. The new education would be based on the classics of Greece and Rome and of early Christianity and would aim to make better Christians and more productive members of society. Humanism became firmly estabhished in England only at the end ofNearly two centuries ago, William Mackray (1829) observed that the Reformation was a very important event in the history of mankind. Foremost, it has promoted civil liberty, and respect for religious freedom which is very important for human happiness. Martin Luther King composed several hymns, and taught the church also, not only the clergy to sing. It was because of him that music and preaching became an important means of advancing the cause of reform across Europe. Thus we see that Reformation music was more modern, using hymns and songs. Liturgy was also used during the Reformation.Liturgy, or the music of worship in the Judeo-Christian tradition, its status in the quadrivium, and its expanding role in society, guaranteed its position in cultural life. The relatively large number of treatises published between 1532 and 1540 was accompanied by a similar boom in music publishing. Music was a field that was developing rapidly, with the help of the printing press which was newly invented by Gutenberg, in 1440.According to Vennard (1967), a straight tone was used, and the paintings and drawings of the period give clues as to the vocal technique. There are various mouth openings and different signs of ease or strain. A stronger argument is that the compass of Renaissance music is so limited that only one register was used. Court singers used mostly middle tones: they sang rather lightly. Also, there some ornaments were used in music, e. vibrato is one of them. A cultivated singer could alternate straight tones with vibrato at will. The music of Palestrina was to be sung in an echoing stone cathedral, and it is possible that the hooty straight tone was used for
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Vennard. (1967). Singing Mechanism and Technique: The Mechanism and the Technique, Carl Fischer, L.L.C.
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