Moreover, Australian oceans provide refuge for diverse species such as whale and dolphin species, and fish among others. Ningaloo Marine Park is also another Australian marine park protecting diverse habitats such as coral reefs, lagoons, and continental seabeds among others (White 2009, p. Indeed, Australian oceans are special and worthy of protection. The environment, economy, culture and society fully depend on healthy oceans. Over seventy five percent of Australian population is along the coastline making Australia to have a unique coastal environment surrounded by streams and rivers, lagoons, beaches, and estuarine areas among others (Perrow and Davy2002, p. Australians are islanders and coastal people and so these oceans is part of their lifestyle and they are pleased with their coral reefs and beaches because they can explore and practice different activities such as diving and fishing as a way of enjoying themselves and admiring nature. These oceans provide food, place of work and play, but these oceans suffer from misuse and lack of protection.Australian citizens make use of the marine environment either for recreational activities such as diving and boating, or for commercial activities like tourism and commercial fishing among others. Many Australians use their leisure time engaging in recreational fishing and so the Australian government has tried to avoid locating highly protected marine park zones in area important to recreational fishers. Therefore, recreational fishers are allowed to conduct such activity in particular zone areas such as Multiple Use zones among others. More so, commercial fishing is acknowledged by the government and is therefore permitted in most marine zones. In addition, marine tourism activities including whale watching and diving will be allowed within all zones in the marine reserves networks. However, tourism activities involving the extraction of marine resources are prohibited. Moreover, charter boat operations that involve fishing such as charter fishing tours are permitted. Nevertheless, activities such as exploring and developing petroleum is not allowed anywhere in the Coral Sea Commonwealth marine reserves, but port development and shipping is allowed everywhere around the marine reserves. However, practices like unsustainable coastal development, overfishing, and offshore petroleum extraction and production are the leading factors affecting marine life.
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Hillstrom, K., and Hillstrom, L. C.2003, Australia, Oceania, and Antarctica: a continental overview of environmental issues, Santa Barbara, Calif. [u.a.], ABC-CLIO.
Macneely, J. A.1994, Protecting nature: regional reviews of protected areas.Cambridge:IUCN
Newsome, D., Moore, S. A., and Dowling, R. K.2013, Natural area tourism: ecology, impacts, and management, Bristol, Channel View Publications.
Perrow, M. R., and Davy, A. J. 2002, Handbook of ecological restoration, Cambridge, Angleterre, Cambridge University Press.
Scovazzi, T. 1999, Marine specially protected areas: the general aspects and the Mediterranean regional system, The Hague, Kluwer Law International.
Short, A. D., and Woodroffe, C. D.2009, The coast of Australia, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
White, M. W. D. 2009, Australian offshore laws, Annandale, N.S.W., Federation Press.
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