Although most of the mentioned cases are mostly within hospital settings, Clostridium difficile is also common away from medical centres.The risk of infection by Clostridium difficile depends on two factors; the exposure to the bacteria and exposure to antibiotics. The occurrence of Clostridium difficile is highest in infants, accounting for about 84. Residents in long-term care facilities come second with about 57% occurrence, while occurrence in healthy adults accounts for about 5-15%. In hospital settings, most transmissions occur from hand carriage and environmental surface contamination of infected patients and staff members. Once the Clostridium difficile begins to produce toxins, they spread fast, especially through diarrhoea. The bacteria can withstand the environment outside the body and can therefore contaminate the skin, toilets, and other surfaces where transmission easily occurs through ingestion. The spores produced by the bacteria can also be transmitted through the air such as when spreading a bed.Of all the healthcare-associated infections, HAIs, known to man, Clostridium difficile remains of the most resistant infections. In the United States alone, it infects about 337,000 people annually, of which 14,000 Americans succumb to it within the same time. Older adults are mostly likely to get the infection and succumb to it. Additionally, it costs the United States health care sector an average 3.2 billion dollars every year. In recent years, the organism has been increasing its resistance to medication and being of concern in the medical field. One of its biggest challenges is that it arises from the use of medication. As such, it may hamper the medication and healing process (Coia 2009, p. Collectively, all these factors make Clostridium difficile a problem organism. The final challenge is that no specific method of diagnosis can be termed as being the best. In the following section, the different existing methods of diagnosing the organism are discussed.Diagnosing Clostridium difficile is usually a difficult process. This is because while the bacteria might be the most common [infectious] causal factor of diarrhoea associated with antibiotics, there needs to be a way of distinguishing it from other causes of diarrhoea (The Lancet 2013, n. There are both noninfectious and infectious causes. For instance, Staphylococcus aureus can cause colitis similar to Clostridium
Coia, J 2009, “What is the role of antimicrobial resistance in the new epidemic of Clostridium difficile?” International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 33 (1) 12-24.
Eckert, C, Jones, G, & Barbut, F 2013, “Diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection”, Medscape Multispeciality. Available: http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/815147_6 [18 Feb, 2015].
Greenberger, N. J., Blumberg, R. S., & Burakoff, R 2009, Current diagnosis & treatment. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Humphries, R, Uslan, D, & Rubin, Z 2013, “Performance of Clostridium difficile Toxin Enzyme Immunoassay and Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests Stratified by Patient Disease Severity”, Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 51 (3): 869-873.
Mylonaki M, Langmead L, & Pantes A 2004, “Enteric infection in relapse of inflammatory bowel disease: importance of microbiological examination of stool”, European Journal of Gastroenterol Hepatol 16(1): 775-789.
Rodemann J, Dubberke E, & Reske ,K 2007, “Incidence of Clostridium difficile infection in inflammatory bowel disease”, European Journal of Gastroenterol Hepatol 21 (5):339-351.
Rolfe, D 2013, Clostridium Difficile: Its Role in Intestinal Disease. Burlington: Elsevier Science.
Shetty, N, Wren, M, & Coen, P 2010, “The role of Glutamate Dehydrogenase for the detection of Clostridium difficile in faecal samples: a meta-analysis”, The Journal of Hospital Infections, 77(1): 1-6.
Tang, Y, & Stratton, W 2013, Advanced techniques in diagnostic microbiology. New York: Springer.
The Lancet 2013, “Differences in outcome according to Clostridium difficile testing method: a prospective multicentre diagnostic validation study of C. difficile infection.” The Lancet, Available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(13)70200-7 [18 Feb, 2015].
Wang, T, Matukas, L, & Streutker, C 2013, “histologic findings and clinical characteristics in acutely symptomatic ulcerative colitis patients with superimposed Clostridium difficile infection”, American Journal of Clinical Pathology 140(1): 831-837.
Please type your essay title, choose your document type, enter your email and we send you essay samples