The First Informal Fallacy
A very old farmer in Roswell, Mr. Johnson, claimed that on one evening when he was working in his cornfield, he saw a flying saucer pass across his farm. Mr. Johnson never went beyond the fifth grade in his early school life. Furthermore, he can hardly read and write. He is also very ignorant of what the scientists and other specialists have said and written on the subject; hence, his report cannot be considered as true (Steelman, 2014).
The Second Informal Fallacy
The Congress of the United States should not bother to consult major colleges and universities on educational appropriations in the country. Since they are members of the educational establishment, they will obviously want as much money for the education system as they think they can get (Shapiro, 2007).
Appeal to Tradition Fallacy
The Appeal to Tradition fallacy uses historical preferences of a community of people as the evidence that a particular historical preference is correct. Traditions are usually passed from one generation to the next with no other better explanation besides, “this is how it has always been done.” However, this is not a reason; instead, it is the absence of a reason. Appeal to Tradition is a fallacy that only occurs when people assume that something is correct or better because it is traditional, older, or has always been done. This is not always true.
For example, marriage has always and traditionally been between a woman and a man; hence, gay marriages should be banned and not allowed in the country. The explanation for this fallacy is that often many traditions have been stemmed from religious beliefs, and until individuals start to question the reasoning and logic behind such traditions, the gay community will continue to suffer. Just because certain practices were acceptable in past culture, does not make it acceptable today. This is the same case as in slavery, racism, corporal punishment, and sexism.
Shapiro, I. D. (2007). Fallacies of Logic: Argumentation cons. et cetera, 64(1). Retrieved from http://www.thecampuscommon.com/library/ezproxy/ticketdemocs.asp?sch=auo&turl=http://search.proquest.com/docview/204105839
Steelman, T. (2014). 13 Logical fallacies and how conservatives use them to distort the facts. Retrieved from http://aattp.org/13-logical-fallacies-and-how-conservatives-use-them-to-distort-the-facts/
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