There are several ways in which antidiversity attitudes are changed. Administrators who are aware of the following processes are better able to manage diversity. Attitudes are seldom changed by logic. It is difficult to find circumstances in which antidiversity attitude change has come about as a result of logical argument or additional information. When police officers who hold antidiversity attitudes are confronted by supervisors with logic or with new information, they usually do not change their beliefs. Instead, they tend to hide their attitudes and pretend to have been converted, particularly if their supervisors are monitoring the training. Prodiversity information alone is seldom enough (Armstrong, 2001). Therefore, not simply what is said but also who said it is an important variable influencing whether an argument or information will change attitudes. There is also the general finding that prodiversity attitudes acquired by logical arguments are seldom acted out very logically. For example, male managers' attitudes toward female police officers may be tolerant during diversity training but show very little carryover into the workforce. They give lip service to being equal opportunity employers but maintain dual standards for male and female subordinates-with the females having to be better qualified than their male peers to be appointed to certain positions (Campbell, 1997). Not only is there little evidence that important antidiversity attitudes are changed by logical-information inputs, but there is considerable evidence that a great amount of information, particularly on controversial topics, actually hardens or freezes antidiversity attitudes. Opponents of diversity look for other sources to support their beliefs, such as biblical passages or antidiversity research findings. Techniques such as an exceedingly emotional appeal or carefully crafted experiential exercises focusing on cultural diversity often are more effective than highly structured scientific lectures. What is true and what is personally desirable are not always the same.
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