Wang et al (2006), observes that decision making within the naturalistic environment have characteristics that include problems that are ill-structured, where the environment is dynamic with competing goals that are ill-defined and in constant evolution. In such circumstances like the emergency medical practice, the time constraint is a common phenomenon, meaning the decision-making process that requires assessing, interpreting and assimilating multiple data is at high risk of being compromised (Wang et al, 2008). In such case, the norms of the health facility together with the expectations are put on balance against the personal choices of the decision makers.
Thus, the naturalistic decision-making personnel encounters indefinite problems, which equally has limited knowledge regarding the probable alternatives for action and their ultimate consequences (Wang and Katz, 2007). The theory uses an assumption that makers of decisions only act in terms of the perception they have regarding a given situation. It has thus been considered an ideal model within the chaotic environment where there are uncertain conditions with less information, and this prompts the practitioners to be primarily reliant on their respective experiences in decision making (Matlin, 2003).
The descriptive theory concentrates more on the manner in which the individuals make decisions and judgment. Within this theory, there exist no limitations to the logicality or rationality of the individual involved but is basically interested in the manner the person makes real-world judgment and decisions, as determined by the actual ecologies, context, conditions, and the environment in which such decisions are made (LeGault, 2006). Interaction, context, and ecology are undoubtedly the major pillars upon which interpretation is made in the descriptive theory (Aitken, 2003). The model acknowledges the limitations of the human memory hampering the decision making and judgment. The descriptive model together with the JDM theories has a special focus on a heuristic, investigating, errors, and biases within the JDM (Laing et al, 2008).
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