In the education sector, various aspects of ICT have been incorporated into the school curriculum to help in teaching, learning, and attainment of set objects. Radio and television are the two most used aspects of ICT in the educational sector given the fact that they are among the first technological devices to be discovered (Kennewell, 2004). Television and radio usage in schools is made effective through direct substitution of the teacher for the duration when a programme is being broadcasted.Having a school broadcast programming, which complements teaching and learning resources that the school cannot have access to in addition to having a range of educational programming broadcasted from the community, national and international stations where general and informal education is offered.
The Interactive Radio Instruction (IRI) is one of the most effective aspects of direct teaching that has been used in education with great success levels. The IRI model for teaching involves having a predetermined twenty to thirty-minute direct teaching and learning exercises that are presented to students in a classroom every day. Lessons developed based on this model are tailored according to particular objectives for specific levels of disciplines such as science, maths, health, and languages in a national curriculum the intention being improving classroom teaching especially by having regular and structured instructions that help teachers in schools that lack qualified staff or adequate resources (Visser, Visser & Amirault, 2012; Di Gropello, 2006).
School broadcasting which in most cases is available in form of print materials, cassettes and CD-ROMS are avenues for enhancing how traditional classroom instructions are transmitted to students. This use of ICT does not replace the teacher but acts as a complementary resource to make the student better grasp the contents of a given curriculum. School broadcasting is more flexible compared to direct broadcasting since the teacher has the ultimate say over how to integrate available broadcast materials into classroom teaching and learning experiences.
Condie, R., & Munro, B. (2007) The impact of ICT in schools: Landscape review. Coventry: Becta Research.
Cox, M, Abbott, C, Webb, M, Blakeley, B, Beauchamp, T andRhodes, V (2003) ICT and Attainment: A Review of theResearch Literature, ICT in Schools Research and EvaluationSeries No. 17.Coventry/London: Becta/DfES.
Dawes, L., Mercer, N. And Wegerif, .R (2000) extending talking and reasoning skills using ICT, In Leask, M. and Meadows, J. (Eds.) Teaching and learning with ICT in the primaryschool. London: Routledge.
Di Gropello, E. (Ed.). (2006) Meeting the challenges of secondary education in Latin America and East Asia: Improving efficiency and resource mobilization. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.
Deibert, R. (Ed.). (2010) Access controlled: The shaping of power, rights, and rule in cyberspace. Cambridge: The MIT Press.
Her Majesty’s Inspectorate of Education (HMIE) (2005) The Integration of Information andCommunications Technologies in Scottish Schools.An interimreport by HM Inspectors of Education[Online], Available:http://www.hmie.gov.uk/documents/publication/EvICT%20Final%2018%20Oct.pdf[28 January 2013].
Keegan, D. (2013) Foundations of distance education.Psychology Press.
Kennewell, S. (2001) Using affordances and constraints to evaluate the use of ICT in teaching and learning, Journal of IT and Teacher Education, 10, 101-116
Kennewell, S. (2004) Meeting the standards in using ICT for secondary teaching: A guide to the ITTNC. London: Routledge.
Kennewell, S. (2005) Researching the influence of interactive presentation tools on teachers' pedagogy. Paper presented at the British Educational Research Association Annual Conference, University of Glamorgan, 14-17 September 2005.
Livingston, K and Condie, R (2003) Evaluation of the SCHOLARProgramme. Final report for the Scottish Executive EducationDepartment.Edinburgh: Scottish Executive [Online], Available:http://www.flatprojects.org.uk/evaluations/evaluationreports/scholarreport.asp[28 January 2013].
McClain, K., & Cobb, P. (2001) Supporting students' ability to reason about data. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 45(1-3), 103-129.
Pannu, P., & Tomar, Y. A. (2010) ICT4D information communication technology for development.IK International Publishing House.
Passey, D., Rogers, C., Machell, J., McHugh, G. and Allaway, D. (2004) The motivational effect of ICT on pupils. London: DfES Publications.
Pittard, V, Bannister, P and Dunn, J (2003) The big picture: TheImpact of ICT on Attainment, Motivation and Learning.London: DfES [Online], Available:http://www.dfes.gov.uk/research/data/uploadfiles/ThebigpICTure.pdf[28 January 2013].
Siaciwena, R., Siabi-Mensah, K., Mwangi, A. P., Mattee, A. Z., Bbuye, J., & Sibalwa, D. (2000) Case studies of non-formal education by distance and open learning. Vancouver: Commonwealth of Learning.
Torgerson, C and Zhu, D (2004) A systematic review and metaanalysisof the effectiveness of ICT on literacy learning inEnglish 5–16. London: EPPI Centre, Institute of Education
Ofsted (2005,) Embedding ICT in schools – a dual evaluationexercise.London: Ofsted.
Visser, L., Visser, Y. L., & Amirault, R. J. (Eds.) (2012) Trends and Issues in Distance Education: international perspectives. Charlotte: IAP.
Vrasidas, C., & Glass, G. V. (Eds.) (2005) Preparing Teachers to Teach with Technology (HC).IAP.
Warschauer, M. (2004) Technology and social inclusion: Rethinking the digital divide.Cambridge: The MIT Press.
Please type your essay title, choose your document type, enter your email and we send you essay samples