The shared program technique stated that complex instructions should control simple hardware instead of the simple hardware being wired for every program. The conditional control transfer enabled the development of loops with IF, THEN, and FOR statements. This concept also suggested that small code blocks could take any random order instead of the steps ordered chronologically. Von Neumann architecture was invented and it enabled the storage of computer programs in computer memory (Null and Lobur 41). Machine language was used to develop early computer programs. This involved the use of different instructions for every computer model to perform the same task. They used binary code. Assembly languages were later invented and they used text instructions instead of numbers. This language was faster and more convenient than machine language. In 1948, scientists used Claude Shannon’s mathematical theory for coding data and checking for its accuracy after it was transferred between computers. Claude Shannon recognized the bit to be the basic data unit and the fundamental computation unit. The Short Code language was developed in 1949 for electronic devices. This language required programmers to manually change its instructions into binary code (O’Regan 119).In the 1950s, several programming languages that are still used in the modern times were designed. They include LISP (List Processing), FORTRAN, and COBOL. Most modern concepts are derived from these languages. Most of the languages developed during this time were only used for a specific purpose and could not be used for any other purpose. COBOL was designed for business purposes while FORTRAN dealt with mathematical functions. During this decade, the ALGOL 6 algorithm was developed that enabled the creation of nested blocks (Pierce 10). Grace Hopper invented the A-O Compiler in 1951, which was the first high-level compiler. The A-O compiler enabled computers to use English-like words rather than numbers. The advent of compilers increased programming speed as they changed the statements into binary digits for the computer to understand. This task was originally done manually by the programmers (O’Regan 127). Herbert Simon and Allen Newell helped in establishing artificial intelligence when they invented the Logic Theorist software in 1955. This software enabled the use of rules of
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