The subsequent production stage involves soap washing. This is necessary to remove the excess glycerin and water presently in the soap mixture. The solution comprising of soap is poured into a column and lye is added at the top. When the latter flows down the column several rotating disks keep turning, effectively agitating the mixture. These disks are turned by electrical energy, and the resulting turbulence makes sure that the lye and soap solution are adequately mixed. The soap is allowed to overflow, while the remnant lye is channeled away from the bottom of the column through regulated pumping. This shows that electrical energy is required for the pumping machine (Simmons & Appleton, 2007).The fourth stage in soap production involves lye separation. The stated separation is crucial to ensure that the final soap is adequately pure and wielding the right texture. Lye and soap are set apart using a centrifuge. This refers to a machine, whose varying rotating speed allows components in a fluid to separate on the basis of their density. Since lye is denser than soap, it remains at the bottom from where it is effectively drained away. The crucial point to note in this case is that, the centrifuge is propelled by electrical energy. The other soap manufacturing phase that does not require immense energy is the fifth one, which entails neutralization of the soap, fresh from the lye separation stage. This stage is necessary to make soap usable, since its alkali levels are still high because of caustic soda (NaOH) used in preceding stages. Neutralization is achieved through use of a relatively weak acid for example, citric acid, phosphoric acid, and fatty acids from coconut oil. Addition of preservative is also necessary at this stage of production. During this phase, mixing is still imperative necessitating use of electrical energy. The sixth step in this process involves drying the soap. This is vital because water levels should be reduced to a percentage of twelve or lower. Drying also referred to as vacuum drying is done through heating soap to approximately 1250C under intense pressure.
Basu, S. Pranab, D., Thakur, A. (2014). Experimental design in soap manufacturing for optimization of fuzzified process capability index. Journal of Manufacturing Systems, 3, 1-12.
Dunn, M. (2010). Scientific Soap making: The Chemistry of Cold Process. Cambridge University: Clavicula Press.
Garzena, P., & Marina T. (2004). Soap Naturally: Ingredients, methods and recipes for natural handmade soap. New York, NY: Programmer Publishing.
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