There are various methods that have been devised to determine the characteristics of groundwater flow. These characteristics include; Permeability, hydraulic conductivity, storativity, among others. The methods used to determine the various characteristics of groundwater flow include the slug test and hydraulic Head measurements. In summary, slug test involves removal or addition of water slug into the dug well, the adjustment in the water head is then observed and recorded with time (Chow, 2011). This is the most widely used method since it is inexpensive, simple and quick.In this practical, the groundwater flow at Musgrave bridge field site is determined. In the process, the hydraulic conductivity of the underlying material is determined using the slug test. Also, the hydraulic head is measured.In the Penrith sandstone aquifer and the overlying drift deposits, boreholes were drilled (Environment Agency, 2013). “Seven pairs of piezometers were dug at the site, each pair having a piezometer in the sandstone (typically 10m to 20m below ground level) and in the drift (typically 5m to 8m below ground level). Each borehole was typically drilled with an 83mm to 114mm (3¼ to 5½ inch) diameter drill and completed with a 25mm diameter piezometer with a screen length of 1m( In this case, the piezometer allows access to groundwater Just over 1m interval). A core was also taken at the site, extracted to a depth of 21.5m and completed as a 152.4mm diameter open hole. In addition, a 45 degree inclined piezometer was installed under the river” (Division of Water Resources, 2012).Generally in this test, the hydraulic head in the piezometer is raised to create a hydraulic gradient between the piezometer and the formation, this induces flow (Environment Agency, 2013). The following procedure was followed in the slug test.The piezometer label and the driver label was recorded. The cable of the driver logger was then secured on the borehole casing. The diver logger was then carefully lowered into the piezometer and the time recorded. The level was then left to adjust for three minutes. The slug cable length was then set and recorded. The slug cable loop was then secured to the top of the borehole and the slug inserted into the piezometer while holding it. After the elapse of the three minutes, the slug was let go and time recorded. The level was then left for three minutes to recover. The slug was then
Chow, V. T. (2011). Applied Hydrology. Prentice-Hall.
Division of Water Resources. (2012, November 2012). Basic Hydrogeology. Retrieved from GROUND WATER, AQUIFERS & CONFINING BEDS: http://www.ncwater.org/Education_and_Technical_Assistance/Ground_Water/Hydrogeology/
Environment Agency. (2013, June 21). Eden at Great Musgrave Bridge (76806). Retrieved from Environment Agency Website: http://www.environment-agency.gov.uk/hiflows/station.aspx?76806
Fitts, C. (2002). Groundwater Science. Great Britain: Elsevier Science Ltd.
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