They considered that Sophists wanted to destabilize the city states and destroy the morality of its citizens. Demagogues gave a tough time to Sophists with public support and created an atmosphere of hatred against Sophists. In Sparta, efforts were made to develop a system of Oligarchy after defeating Athens in Peloponnesian war. Although, Athens repulsed the tyrannical rule of Sparta but they blamed Sophists to create political instability and social chaos among the city states (Patterson 187).The process of ‘urbanization’ had been started Greek after the Peloponnesian war. Greeks who were lived in the countryside started to migrate to major urban centers for taking their share in the benefits of the trade and commerce. As a result, ‘family farm economy’ converted into ‘money economy’. Warfare became professional, expensive and sophisticated as compared to previously less destructive, amateur and cheap in nature. The state burdened hoplite farmers to meet the expenditure of new trends and technologies of warfare which led the decline of this class politically and economically. With the passage of time, large economic states of tenant farmers and slaves had been converted into family owned farms with the workforce of independent labor or farmers. The decline of traditional polis farm system contributed in the decline of polis itself. Although, Greeks were dynamic and enthusiastic people but polis was reached at the verge of collapse.Besides above mentioned reasons of political crisis in Greek polis, the concentration of wealth among few hands had also a negative connotation for the ancient society. This wealthy class dominated the political field also and safeguarded its vested interests at the cost of the state. The commercial class suppressed other classes and segments of life with fair and foul play.One of the reasons of political instability was the dearth of the natural resources in city states that led the unhealthy competition among various classes and generated ‘class biasness’ in harmonious society of city states.As far as the political instability in Roman Republic is concerned, many reasons are same as in the Greek polis but some have their own unique nature. Unequal distribution of wealth is one of the causes of unrest in Roman Republic which started after Second Punic War. At those times, small farmers and craftsmen were
Cornell, T., The beginnings of Rome: Italy and Rome from the Bronze age to the Punic wars. Routledge, 1995.
Mehl, Andreas. Roman Historiography. Malden, Mass. [etc.: Blackwell, 2005. Print.
Patterson, Cynthia B. The family in Greek history. Harvard University Press, 2009.
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