Of integration may be producing a global convergence of different organizational systems, especially since it is fuelled by economic underpinnings.Ugeux defines convergence as the manner in which a series of actions are driven towards a central point of reference – a process resulting in a move towards a common set of principles and objectives. Since globalization represents the integration of markets on the basis of economic ties, there is a convergence of global financial systems, such as capital markets and credit systems, fuelled by the higher levels of activity of international firms which now have worldwide operations.Uguex details several of the initiatives that have been taken in the field of corporate governance in many countries, including the provisions of the Cadbury report in the UK and the Sarbanes Oxley Act implemented in the United States. He notes that there appears to be a conceptual convergence in the following aspects: (a) the use of a non ruling approach, wherein recommendations have been made for Companies to follow, which have been mandatorily imposed, yet are in practice being followed by many countries (b) the majority of the Board of public companies must be independent and executives of the Company are not deemed to be independent (c) Members of the audit committee must be independent directors and must not receive fees or compensation from the Companies (d) the audit committee makes the decision on the hiring of external auditors and this is subject to the approval of the directors and shareholders.These aspects reflect the fact that subsequent to the corporate scandals that have erupted with companies such as Enron, a higher level of corporate responsibility and accountability has been imposed on most firms and these measures are being applied across nations in a manner that is similar and reflects a convergence in the principles of corporate governance. As a result, managers in international organizations may need to apply uniform standards in corporate governance across all their subsidiaries in various countries.
* Begin, James P, 1997. “Dynamic Human resource Systems: Cross national Comparisons” New York: Walter de Gruyter
* Campbell, D.T. and Stanley, J, 1963. “Experimental and Quasi-experimental designs for research” Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
* Friedman, Thomas L, 2000. “The Lexus and the Olive Tree”, New York: Anchor Books
* Hedges, Inez, 1995 . “Transnational corporate culture and cultural resistance”, Socialism and Democracy, 9: 151-164.
* Keily, Ray, 2007. “Poverty reduction through liberalization? Neoliberalism and the myth of global convergence”, Review of International Studies, 33(3):415
* Kerr, C, Dunlop, J, Harbison, E.H. and Myers, C, 1962. “Industrialism and Industrial man” London: Heinemann
* Kwok, Kian-Woon and Low, Kee-Hong, 2002. “Singapore and the New Asian”
IN D. Crane, N. Kawashima, and K. Kawasaki (eds.) “Global Culture: Arts, Media, Policy, and Globalization” New York: Routledge, pp. 149-168
* Lam, A, 2000. “Tacit knowledge, organizational learning and societal organizations: An integrated framework.” Organization Studies, 21: 487-513.
* Locke, Richard, and Thomas Kochan, 1995. "Conclusion: The Transformation of Industrial Relations? A Cross-National Review of the Evidence." IN “Employment Relations in a Changing World Economy”, (ed. Richard Locke, Thomas Kochen, and Michael Piore). Cambridge: MIT Press.
* McMichael, P, 2000. “Development and Social Change”, Thousand Oaks: Pine Forge Press, pp xxiii, 149
* Nonaka, I and Takeuchi, H, 1995. “The Knowledge Creating Company” New York: Oxford University Press
* Peters, T and Waterman, R, 1982. “In search of excellence: Lessons from America’s best run Companies” London: Harper and Row
* Pffeffer, J, 1994. “Competitive Advantage through people”, MA: Harvard Business School Press
* Ritzer,George, 2000. “The Macdonaldization of Society”, Pine Forge Press
* Salwen, M. B, 1991. “Cultural imperialism: a media effects approach”, Critical Studies in Mass Communication, 8, pp 29-38.
* Saunders, M, Lewis, P and Thornhill A, 2003. “Research Methods for Business Students”, Prentice Hall
* Sinclair, J., Jacka, E. and Cunningham, S. (eds.) 1996. “New Patterns in Global Television: Peripheral Vision”, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
* Tomooka, K., Kanno, S., and Kobayashi, M., 2002. “Building national prestige: Japanese cultural policy and the influence of Western Institutions”, IN D. Crane, N. Kawashima, and K. Kawasaki (eds.) “Global Culture: Arts, Media, Policy, and Globalization”, New York: Routledge., pp 49-62
* Tomlinson, J., 1991. “Cultural Imperialism: A Critical Introduction”, Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
* Trochim, William, 2001. “The Research Methods Knowledge base” (2nd Edn) Atomic Dog Publishing
* Ugeux, Georges, 2004. “Towards global convergence in corporate governance: an assessment of the current situation”, International Journal of Disclosure and Governance, 1(4): 339-155
* Wiles, J.A. and Cornwell, T.B, 1990. “A Review of Methods Utilized in Measuring Affect, Feelings and Emotion in Advertising”, Current Issues and Research in Advertising, 13(2): 241-275
* Wilkinson, David and Birmingham, Peter, 2003. “Using research instruments: A Guide for researchers”, Routledge
Please type your essay title, choose your document type, enter your email and we send you essay samples