Minerals comprise of cadmium, titanium, molybdenum, lead, cobalt, nickel, strontium, copper, zinc, barium, vanadium, chromium, rubidium, magnesium, sodium, manganese, calcium, iron and potassium. The sugars present are the mannose, galactose, sucrose, fructose, glucose, and arabinose. Furthermore, several amino acids like valine, tyrosine, threonine, serine, proline, histidine, glycine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, methionine, lysine, leucine, isoleucine, glutamic acid, cysteine, asparagine, arginine, and alanine are also present in the coffee beans. In addition, the coffee beans comprise of complex B, vitamin PP and B3 (the niacin), and chlorogenic acid in magnitudes that can differ from 7 to 12%, this is three to five times in excess of the caffeine. Among all these substances that are present in the chemical composition of the coffee beans, it is only caffeine that is not destroyed through excessive roasting, thus termed as thermostable. Additional substances like fat, chlorogenic acid, sugars, trigonelline, and proteins can be destroyed or even preserved and converted into reactive products in the course of the coffee roasting procedure (Belitz, Grosch, & Schieberle, 2009).The main aim of processing the coffee fruits, after initial cleaning and classification, is to eliminate the outer pulp and skin layers, leaving the beans in an undamaged and clean condition. To start with the coffee is cleaned and sorted, and then there is pulping, fermentation, drying, hulling, and grading. In cleaning and sorting, the coffee fruits are sorted by size first so as to allow for an efficient process of the pulping. There are two cleaning and sorting procedures that depend on the processing methods that are the natural and wet processing. The natural processing is the easiest procedure that is commonly applied to the Robusta Coffee. It involves leaving the fruits on the trees up until they dry naturally. After that then they are harvested, and the fruit is passed through the hulling machine to remove the coffee husk in one step. However, this step cannot apply to Arabica coffee as they tend to fall when partially dry, or when overripe (Ranken, Kill, & Baker, 1997).Therefore, the best method for them is the wet processing where the fruits harvested are sieved so as to remove leaves, twigs, stones, and dust, among others and then passed over a flotation tank. In this process, the partially dry float and are treated separately while
Belitz, H.-D., Grosch, W., & Schieberle, P. (2009). Food chemistry. Berlin: Springer.
Paquin, P. (2009). Functional and speciality beverage technology. Boca Raton, Fla: CRC.
Ranken, M. D., Kill, R. C., & Baker, C. (1997). Food Industries Manual. Boston, MA: Springer US.
Wintgens, J. N. (2004). Coffee: growing, processing, substainable production: A guidebook for growers, processors, traders, and researchers. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH.
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