Further factors related to short-term memory were also considered in tabulating results. For treatment, TaaltestAlleKinderen (TAK-R) was used which is a test battery for the assessment of Dutch spoken language skills of hearing children and sign language tests were used (p. The research findings indicated that there is a positive relationship between vocabulary in SLN and written Dutch (p. Another finding was that deaf children of deaf parents have an earlier and more intensive contact with SLN and, therefore, should score higher on the vocabulary and story comprehension tasks in SLN (p. As far as impact of LP is concerned, deaf children who exclusively prefer SLN will be more proficient in SLN compared to deaf children who do not exclusively prefer SLN (p., Winton, S., Garberoglio, C., & Gobble, M.The Effects of American Sign Language as an Assessment.Accommodation for Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing.Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 16(2), 198-211.The purpose of the research is to examine utility of ASL for deaf children during standardized assessments and tests (p. The theoretical framework supported the notion that use of ASL for oral tests provided valid and beneficial results; therefore its replication on standard tests needs to be explored (p. The research further indicates that factors like test subjects, student’s proficiency in the given area and matching the individual student’s needs with the type of accommodation and the content of the test play an important role in scores of deaf students (p. Since state assessment does not utilize non-written English testing techniques, therefore students well-versed with ASL sustain lower grades. The sample of randomly selected students included 64 students having severe to profound hearing loss but without disabilities that required additional test accommodation. The age of this selected sample ranged from 10-15 years with students enrolled in 5th to 8th grades (p. All the major termslike SDHH (De: Students who are deaf or hard of hearing, C.1) and accommodations (De: Accommodations are meant to make it easier for students with disabilities to gain access to test content without changing the difficulty of the test. 34) were explained within the context. The settings were six schools for the deaf from the selected state however students were asked questions about their language experiences at home as well (p. For deciding research design, a pilot study comprising of
Thompson, R.L., Vinson, D.P. &Vigilocco, G. (2009).The Link between Form and Meaning in American Sign Language: Lexical Processing Effects. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 35(2), 550-7.
The purpose of the research was to explore relationship between iconicity and learning of American Sign Language by first and second-language signers (p. 551, C.2, L. 24). The research extensively uses terms like RTs(De: Fast reaction times, P. 551, C.2, L.2) and iconicity(De: the transparent relationship between meaning and form, P. 550, C.1, L. 1), and attempts to explain them with the help of supporting content of the article. Thompson, Vinson and Vigilocco have based their argument on the theoretical framework that all forms of language utilize iconicity however sign language utilizes it more due to its visual mapping properties and lesser dependence on phonology (p. 551, C. 1, L.11).For treatment, they used some of the iconic items from already available research conducted by Snodgrass and Vanderwart (1980) and Szekely et al. (2004), and also designed some by combining visual phonics (p. 552, C.1, L. 12).The participants included 14 deaf ASL signers (5 exposed to ASL from birth and rest in early age), 17 hearing proficient ASL signers and 17 hearing nonsigners in the research (began signing at age 16 and knew it since 8 years) (p. 551, C.2, L.40). All these participants were working as interpreters at the time of research. Research design comprised of combination of a picture and an ASL sign that referred to the same object (p. 552, C.1, L. 1 (Procedure). The experiment comprised of experimental and filler items consisting of mismatching and matching combinations of picture and ASL sign. For control, no picture or sign was repeated in different combinations. Research methodology used variance analyses to identify factorial combination of selected sample with picture salience and block (P. 552, C.2, L. 32). There was no mention of settings within the text. researchfindings indicated that English monolinguals were faster in sign processing than any of the ASL signers whereas there was a limited difference among native and L2 deaf signers (p. 552, C. 2, L. 11 (Results)). Furthermore, iconicity is only one aspect of language processing and has an impact on its speed if not corroborated by other features of language including phonology (p. 554, C.1 L. 32).
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