The next one is in relation to involvement. In this concept, there has been a lot of focus on the cognitive effort. This brings out the emotional stimulation and point of cognitive organization and information structuring (BERMEJO, 2007). It also brings out the Para-social interaction such as talking back to the television. Next is in terms of imperviousness to influence. This involves the degree to which the audience limits, influences, and controls the media effects (MILLER, 1998). Often, an activity is viewed as insubordinate of the communicator goals and intensions.Bauer, a psychologist, is the person who came up with the phrase imperviousness to influence which was thereafter termed as active audience (ALEXANDER, BALL-ROKEACH & CANTOR, 1986). His work is viewed to be a very vital agent of change from administrative approaches to a more recipient-oriented investigation perspective (MILLER, 1998). This is even evident in his mission statement whereby he says that the major aim of a psychologist is to believe in the origin of dignity of human beings and thereby comparing it to the extent to which a robot can be accorded some dignity (ALASUUTARI, 1999). His idea was very much appreciated by other scholars who joined him in his work to assist mass communication theorists in this complex field (LUMBY, 2003).In his work, Bauer was in an attempt to get not only the personal, but also the image of an individual. He viewed nature of individuals as rational, self determining and without restraint - restraints. Fashion Media.
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