It came into force in 2005, the year when Canada and Russia became parties. It reflected the commitment by countries to combat GHG emissions based on the national differences, the ability to make a difference and the wealth status of the country (Grubb 2004). The schedule of the development of the protocol started in 2006 and the first commitment period was to run between 2008 and 2012.The protocol is guided by a number of principles, which ensures that parties adhere to the required regulations. Firstly, there are binding commitments for Annex I parties; this is geared towards the reduction of GHG emissions. Secondly, there is a requirement that the Annex I countries develop internal policies and strategies that are aimed at reducing the amount of GHG emissions. The third principle entails the establishment of an adaptation fund that seeks to facilitate reduction of the impacts of climate change on the developing countries. Fourthly, there is provision for an accounting, reporting, and review of the protocol so that it is implemented to the letter. Finally, the protocol establishes that a compliance committee shall be developed in order to ensure adherence to the provisions of the protocol.The protocol provides that Annex-I countries are to adhere to the targets that have been developed in order to reach the levels of emissions that are stipulated. The inability to adhere to the set regulations provided that economic sanctions should be imposed. Dow and Downing (2007) reports that the withdrawal of United States, Canada, and Australia means that approximately 40% of the total emissions are not considered. This makes it an illusion to reach the 5.2% reduction, below the 1990’s levels.The Kyoto protocol acts as a serious intervention towards combating climate change. It is an international strategy geared towards creating an environmental awareness; this aspect has been assumed for centuries and required appropriate attention due to the effects of climate change that are witnessed in the world. Climate change is an international issue that affects the world uniformly. The protocol is founded on shared but differentiated responsibilities. It also brings into play other aspects that had not been give focus initially such as innovative climate change strategies, and lays the foundations of governance (De Lucia 2007). Various aspects are determinants to the country’s commitment such as the
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