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Essay plan Essay Example

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Traditional work designs such as job enlargement, job rotation, and job enrichment have to be replaced with flexible job arrangements and team work opportunities focused on increasing organizational work flexibility (Spyropoulos, 2008). For instance, most organizations and trade unions are introducing work practices such as fixed time contracts, shift work, overtime, weekend work, member training, part time work, temporary work, teleworking, job sharing, and home based work and compressed working week (Bryson & Forth, 2010).A trade union is an organization that can be temporary or permanent, and mainly is composed of workers whose main function is to regulate relations between these workers and employers. Recently, the trade unions are facing accusations of being out of trade and of holding onto old restrictive practices that are outlived and fail to meet the needs of present organizational setting (Carl, 2011).In various firms, managers have a main responsibility for the execution of the above-mentioned job design practices. However, their decisions on how work should be handled is influenced by several factors such as legal polices, contracts, management and leadership styles and organizational structure. Additionally, research indicates that existent unions could also affect decision-making and job design practices (Blunt, 2005).While trade unions were viewed as important instruments of social change in the past, they are currently losing their influence in the work place (CBI 2012). Challenges facing the trade unions are known both internally and externally by the labour movement. Some of the challenges include:Unions in nearly all developed economies are experiencing low numbers of membership in recent decades and this is especially harsh and Britain. This downward trend is especially pronounced among certain group of workers, particularly, male workers, young workers, manual workers, and those in the non-governmental sectors (Blanpain, 2001).Although membership has remained relatively stable in the aforementioned groups, the same is not true for young workers. According to Greer 2012, in 2010, there were gaps in union memberships between workers in private and public sectors-14% compared to 56% respectively) and amongst the old and the young aged (10% amongst those aged 16-24 compared to 33% of those above 49). Low density amongst the

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