As a result, slum dwellers in Tokyo city face inadequate drainage and sanitation, unsafe drinking water, poor hygiene, and housing that are terribly crowded and structurally unstable (World Bank 71-2). All these problems have awful consequences on health, especially the children’s health. This is because awful living situations coupled with overcrowding in slums cause a direct danger to public health and increases the vulnerability of those migrating from the urban areas to the effects of environment change (World Bank 73). In addition, hazardous environment in slums leads to susceptibility and spread of fatal illness and diseases. Illnesses like malaria, diarrhea, and cholera are prevalent in the slums. In addition, the young children living in these slums suffer from malaria, measles, diarrhea, pneumonia and have a greater risk of succumbing to disease and illness. Recent statistics indicate that diarrhea is the leading killer disease of children in the slums (World Bank 74-5). Therefore, overcrowding in slums has led to deteriorating health and climate conditions for slum dwellers, with adverse implications for nationwide government stability and global security.Overcrowding has also led to negative effects on transportation in the city. Tokyo city has many business centers proper with many residential areas resulting in a huge number of commuters travelling between these two areas (Little Tokyo Historical society 90). Tokyo overcrowding has led to more than twenty-percent rise in commuter population. This has already exceeded nine million commuters; thus, there has been intense overcrowding of commuters during rush hours. The Effects of Overcrowding on Tokyo City.
Cavendish, Marshall. World and its peoples: Eastern and southern Asia. New York: Marshall Cavendish, 2008.
Cybriwsky, Roman. Historical Dictionary of Tokyo. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press, 2011.
Little Tokyo Historical society. Los Angeless Little Tokyo. Charleston, S.C. : Arcadia Pub., 2010.
Vogel, Steven. Japan Remodeled: How Government and Industry are Reforming Japanese Capitalism. New York: Cornell University Press, 2006.
World Bank. World Development Report 2009: Reshaping Economic Geography. Washington, DC: World Bank, 2008.
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