Reliability refers to the stability and consistency with which the variables are observed while face validity in dependent variables refers to the phenomenological similarity between the behaviour of animal model and specific symptoms of the human disease or disorder. The consistency of the independent variable is measured by the ability to manipulate the independent variable with high precision and reproducibility of the phenomenon under similar conditions since this is critical in any scientific study (Emilien, 2002). Validity of the animal model in studying psychiatric disorder is another criteria that should be met and there are several types of validity that include predictive, convergent, discriminative, etiological and face validity. The purpose of the model is to enhance understanding of psychiatric disorders in human population and only valid scientific observables are the correlations thus the model must lead to accurate prediction (Menard & Treit, 1999, p 593).Predictive validity refers to ability to test or predict the phenomenon that interests the investigator thus such model requires parallel development of clinical measures that will allow for comparisons in psychiatric disorders in human population. An ideal model for psychiatric disorders must respond to treatment with anxiolytic drugs such as benzodiazepines with decreased anxiety and must display defense mechanisms when faced with threatening stimulus while processes underlying psychiatric disorders and psychological causes must be identical (Bilkei-Gorzo, Holsboer & Strohle, 2005).Face validity is the phenomenological similarity in behaviour (dependent variable) that is portrayed by the animal model and identifiable symptoms of psychiatric disorder. Although face validity seems convincing and appealing, it may be misleading and cannot validate models alone since it is only the starting point of the model. In this case, researchers argue that it is unrealistic for two species to have similar phenomenology or symptoms even when the etiology of the psychiatric disorder is known (Claridge & Davis, 2013). In this case, face validity of psychopathology models may not be established objectively and not sufficient condition for determining the usefulness of the animal models. Furthermore, face validity offers knowledge of the symptoms of the disorder such as changes in mood or appetite, but not the similarities
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