Actor network theory is relevant in the design and implementation of an infrastructure system because it is grounded on simple observations. This theory is concerned with the ways in which design and implementation are done, rather than the ways in which these processes are normatively supposed to be approached. Actor network theory explains how technological artifacts are designed. In addition, the theory explains the processes that are performed during the design of a system and the influences of these processes to the outcome. During planning for an infrastructure system, actor network theory states that the actions of the design are connected or related. This means that the designer does not work in a vacuum, but under the influence of different surrounding factors. The actions of the designer and the influencing factors need to be considered together. In an actor network, actions are lined together in order to produce a network. It is vital to note that an action network links both the non-technical and technical elements of a system (Gharajedaghi 2009, p. Therefore, action network theory focuses on the heterogeneous nature of the action networks. This approach in design and implementation has the potential to increase the levels of precision and detail in the final product. This allows a designer the opportunities to look beyond technical and social elements. It also supports a detailed description of concrete mechanisms that glue the network together. During the implementation of an infrastructure system, action network prevents the implementer from distraction by the non-technical or technical elements or means of completing the implementation.In the design and implementation of an infrastructure system, action networks are situated and contextual. It occurs as the input from networks of heterogeneous materials, which create the context. During design and implementation, the action network includes efforts from contracts, incentives, habits of employees, hierarchical power structure and existing modules and systems. Employees and managers of the system pledge their commitment towards the completion of the system (Fenwick & Edwards 2012 p. In addition, they provide their judgment of the existing systems. The actor networks in these elements shape the actions and context of the society. The objective of actor network is to instruct people to create maps of sets of
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